Книга: Достаточно ли мы умны, чтобы судить об уме животных?

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· #1

Тинберген Н. Мир серебристой чайки. – М.: АСТ-Пресс Книга, 2012.

· #2

Название «бихевиоризм» происходит от англ. behaviour – поведение. – Прим. пер.

· #3

Стремление животных обследовать и чистить не только себя, но и других, искать насекомых, вычесывать шерсть – так называемый «груминг» – у приматов обусловлено не просто гигиеной, но играет социальную и сексуальную функцию, формирует психологические и иерархические связи.

· #4

Моррис Д. Голая обезьяна. – М.: Эксмо, 2009..

· #5

Нидерл. puttertje – щегол происходит от put – колодец и putten – черпать. – Прим. пер.

· #6

Тартт Д. Щегол. – М.: Corpus, АСТ, 2014.

· #7

Ладыгина-Котс Н. Н. Дитя шимпанзе и дитя человека. – М.: Государственный Дарвиновский музей, 1935.

· #8

IQ – коэффициент интеллекта (англ. intelligence quotient), служащий количественной оценкой уровня умственного развития человека. – Прим. пер.

· #9

Уайт Л. Избранное: Эволюция культуры. – М.: РОССПЭН, 2004.

· #10

Де Вааль Ф. Политика у шимпанзе. Власть и секс у приматов. – М.: Высшая школа экономики, 2016.

· #11

Лавик-Гудолл Дж. В тени человека. – М.: Мир, 1974.

· #12

Конрад Л. Кольцо царя Соломона. – М.: Знание, 1980.

· #1

Charles Darwin (1972 [orig. 1871]), p. 105.

· #2

Ernst Mayr (1982), p. 97.

· #3

Richard Byrne (1995), Jacques Vauclair (1996), Michael Tomasello and Josep Call (1997), James Gould and Carol Grant Gould (1999), Marc Bekoff et al. (2002), Susan Hurley and Matthew Nudds (2006), John Pearce (2008), Sara Shettleworth (2012), and Clive Wynne and Monique Udell (2013).

· #4

Werner Heisenberg (1958), p. 26.

· #5

Jakob von Uexk?ll (1957 [orig. 1934]), p. 76. See also Jakob von Uexk?ll (1909).

· #6

Thomas Nagel (1974).

· #7

Ludwig Wittgenstein (1958 [orig. 1953]), p. 225.

· #8

Martin Lindauer (1987), p 6, quoting Karl von Frisch.

· #9

Donald Griffin (2001).

· #10

Ronald Lanner (1996).

· #11

Niko Tinbergen, (1953), Eugиne Marais (1969), Dorothy Cheney and Robert Seyfarth (1992), Alexandra Horowitz (2010), and E. O. Wilson (2010).

· #12

Benjamin Beck (1967).

· #13

Preston Foerder et al. (2011).

· #14

Daniel Povinelli (1989).

· #15

12 Joshua Plotnik et al. (2006).

· #16

Lisa Parr and Frans de Waal (1999).

· #17

Doris Tsao et al. (2008).

· #18

Konrad Lorenz (1981), p. 38.

· #19

Edward Thorndike (1898) inspired Edwin Guthrie and George Horton (1946).

· #20

Bruce Moore and Susan Stuttard (1979).

· #21

Edward Wasserman (1993).

· #22

Donald Griffin (1976).

· #23

Victor Stenger (1999).

· #24

Jan van Hooff (1972), Marina Davila Ross et al. (2009).

· #25

Frans de Waal (1999).

· #26

Gordon Burghardt (1991).

· #27

Frans de Waal (2000), Nicola Koyama (2001), Mathias Osvath and Helena Osvath (2008).

· #28

William Hodos and C. B. G. Campbell (1969).

· #29

«Pigeon, rat, monkey, which is which? It doesn't matter.» B. F. Skinner (1956), p. 230.

· #30

Konrad Lorenz (1941).

· #31

Esther Cullen (1957).

· #32

Bonnie Perdue et al. (2011), Steven Gaulin and Randall Fitzgerald (1989).

· #33

Bruce Moore (1973), Michael Domjan and Bennett Galef (1983).

· #34

Sara Shettleworth (1993), Bruce Moore (2004).

· #35

Louise Buckley et al. (2011).

· #36

Harry Harlow (1953), p. 31.

· #37

Donald Dewsbury (2006), p. 226.

· #38

John Falk (1958).

· #39

Keller Breland and Marian Breland (1961).

· #40

B. F. Skinner (1969), p. 40.

· #41

William Thorpe (1979).

· #42

Richard Burkhardt (2005).

· #43

Desmond Morris (2010), p. 51.

· #44

Anne Burrows et al. (2006).

· #45

George Romanes (1882), George Romanes (1884).

· #46

C. Lloyd Morgan (1894), pp. 53–54.

· #47

Roger Thomas (1998), Elliott Sober (1998).

· #48

C. Lloyd Morgan (1903).

· #49

Frans de Waal (1999).

· #50

Ren? R?ell (1996).

· #51

Niko Tinbergen (1963).

· #52

Oskar Pfungst (1911).

· #53

Douglas Candland (1993).

· #54

«The Remarkable Orlov Trotter,» Black River Orlovs, www.infohorse.com/ShowAd.asp?id=3693.

· #55

Juliane Kaminski et al. (2004).

· #56

Gordon Gallup (1970).

· #57

Robert Epstein et al. (1981).

· #58

Roger Thompson and Cynthia Contie (1994), but see Emiko Uchino and Shigeru Watanabe (2014).

· #59

Celia Heyes (1995).

· #60

Daniel Povinelli et al. (1997).

· #61

Jeremy Kagan (2000), Frans de Waal (2009a).

· #62

Kinji Imanishi (1952), Junichiro Itani and Akisato Nishimura (1973).

· #63

Bennett Galef (1990).

· #64

Frans de Waal (2001).

· #65

Satoshi Hirata et al. (2001).

· #66

David Premack and Ann Premack (1994).

· #67

Josep Call (2004), Juliane Br?uer et al. (2006).

· #68

Josep Call (2006).

· #69

Daniel Lehrman (1953).

· #70

Richard Burkhardt (2005), p. 390.

· #71

Ibid., p. 370; Hans Kruuk (2003).

· #72

Frank Beach (1950).

· #73

Donald Dewsbury (2000).

· #74

John Garcia et al. (1955).

· #75

Shettleworth (2010).

· #76

Hans Kummer et al. (1990).

· #77

Frans de Waal (2003b).

· #78

Hans Kruuk (2003), p. 157.

· #79

Niko Tinbergen and Walter Kruyt (1938).

· #80

Frans de Waal (2007 [orig. 1982]).

· #81

Wolfgang Kцhler (1925). The German original, Intelligenzpr?fungen an Anthropoiden, appeared in 1917.

· #82

Robert Yerkes (1925), p. 120.

· #83

Robert Epstein (1987).

· #84

Emil Menzel (1972). Menzel was interviewed by the author in 2001.

· #85

Jane Goodall (1986), p. 357.

· #86

Frans de Waal (2007 [orig. 1982]).

· #87

Jennifer Pokorny and Frans de Waal (2009).

· #88

John Marzluff and Tony Angell (2005), p. 24.

· #89

John Marzluff et al. (2010); Garry Hamilton (2012).

· #90

Michael Sheehan and Elizabeth Tibbetts (2011).

· #91

Johan Bolhuis and Clive Wynne (2009), see also Frans de Waal (2009a).

· #92

Marco Vasconcelos et al. (2012).

· #93

Jonathan Buckley et al. (2010).

· #94

Barry Allen (1997).

· #95

M. M. G?nther and Christophe Boesch (1993).

· #96

Gen Yamakoshi (1998).

· #97

«Tool use is the external employment of an unattached environmental object to alter more efficiently the form, position, or condition of another object, another organism, or the user itself when the user holds or carries the tool during or just prior to use and is responsible for the proper and effective orientation of the tool.» Benjamin Beck (1980), p. 10.

· #98

Robert Amant and Thomas Horton (2008).

· #99

Jane Goodall (1967), p. 32.

· #100

Crickette Sanz et al. (2010).

· #101

Christophe Boesch et al. (2009), Ebang Wilfried and Juichi Yamagiwa (2014).

· #102

William McGrew (2010).

· #103

Jill Pruetz and Paco Bertolani (2007).

· #104

Tetsuro Matsuzawa (1994), Noriko Inoue-Nakamura and Tetsuro Matsuzawa (1997).

· #105

J?rgen Lethmate (1982).

· #106

Carel van Schaik et al. (1999).

· #107

Thibaud Gruber et al. (2010), Esther Herrmann et al. (2008).

· #108

Thomas Breuer et al. (2005), Jean-Felix Kinani and Dawn Zimmerman (2015).

· #109

Eduardo Ottoni and Massimo Mannu (2001).

· #110

Dorothy Fragaszy et al. (2004).

· #111

Julio Mercader et al. (2007).

· #112

Elisabetta Visalberghi and Luca Limongelli (1994).

· #113

Luca Limongelli et al. (1995), Gema Martin-Ordas et al. (2008).

· #114

William Mason (1976), pp. 292–93.

· #115

Michael Gumert et al. (2009).

· #116

«Honey Badgers: Masters of Mayhem,» Nature, broadcast Feb. 19, 2014, Public Broadcasting Service.

· #117

Alex Weir et al. (2002).

· #118

Gavin Hunt (1996), Hunt and Russell Gray (2004).

· #119

Christopher Bird and Nathan Emery (2009), Alex Taylor and Russell Gray (2009), Sarah Jelbert et al. (2014).

· #120

Alex Taylor et al. (2014).

· #121

Natacha Mendes et al. (2007), Daniel Hanus et al. (2011).

· #122

Daniel Hanus et al. (2011).

· #123

Gavin Hunt et al. (2007), p. 291.

· #124

William McGrew (2013).

· #125

Alex Taylor et al. (2007).

· #126

Nathan Emery and Nicola Clayton (2004).

· #127

Vladimir Dinets et al. (2013).

· #128

Julian Finn et al. (2009).

· #129

Bishop of Polignac, cited in Corbey (2005), p. 54.

· #130

Nadezhda Ladygina-Kohts (2002 [orig. 1935]).

· #131

Herbert Terrace et al. (1979).

· #132

Irene Pepperberg (2008).

· #133

Michele Alexander and Terri Fisher (2003).

· #134

Norman Malcolm (1973), p. 17.

· #135

Jerry Fodor (1975), p. 56.

· #136

Irene Pepperberg (1999).

· #137

Bruce Moore (1992).

· #138

Alice Auersperg et al. (2012).

· #139

Ewen Callaway (2012).

· #140

Sarah Boysen and Gary Berntson (1989).

· #141

Irene Pepperberg (2012).

· #142

Irene Pepperberg (1999), p. 327.

· #143

Sapolsky (2010).

· #144

Evolution of Language International Conferences, www.evolang.org.

· #145

Frans de Waal (2007 [orig. 1982], de Waal (1996), de Waal (2009a).

· #146

Dorothy Cheney and Robert Seyfarth (1990).

· #147

Kate Arnold and Klaus Zuberbьhler (2008).

· #148

Toshitaka Suzuki (2014).

· #149

Brandon Wheeler and Julia Fischer (2012).

· #150

Tabitha Price (2013), Nicholas Ducheminsky et al. (2014).

· #151

Amy Pollick and Frans de Waal (2007), Katja Liebal et al. (2013), Catherine Hobaiter and Richard Byrne (2014).

· #152

Frans de Waal (2003a).

· #153

In 1980 Thomas Sebeok and the New York Academy of Sciences organized a conference entitled «The Clever Hans Phenomenon: Communication with Horses, Whales, Apes, and People.»

· #154

Sue Savage-Rumbaugh and Roger Lewin (1994), p. 50, Jean Aitchison (2000).

· #155

Muhammad Spocter et al. (2010).

· #156

Sandra Wohlgemuth et al. (2014).

· #157

Andreas Pfenning et al. (2014).

· #158

Frans de Waal (1997), p. 38.

· #159

Robert Yerkes (1925), p. 79.

· #160

Oliver Sacks (1985).

· #161

Robert Yerkes (1943).

· #162

Vilmos Cs?nyi (2000), Alexandra Horowitz (2009), Brian Hare and Vanessa Woods (2013).

· #163

Tiffani Howell et al. (2013).

· #164

Sally Satel and Scott Lilienfeld (2013).

· #165

Craig Ferris et al. (2001), John Marzluff et al. (2012).

· #166

Gregory Berns (2013).

· #167

Gregory Berns et al. (2013).

· #168

Sana Inoue and Tetsuro Matsuzawa (2007), Alan Silberberg and David Kearns (2009), Tetsuro Matsuzawa (2009).

· #169

Jo Thompson (2002).

· #170

David Premack (2010), p. 30.

· #171

Marc Hauser interviewed by Jerry Adler (2008).

· #172

The Public Broadcasting Service entitled a 2010 series The Human Spark.

· #173

Alfred Russel Wallace (1869), p. 392.

· #174

Suzana Herculano-Houzel et al. (2014), Ferris Jabr (2014).

· #175

Katerina Semendeferi et al. (2002), Suzana Herculano-Houzel (2009), Frederico Azevedo et al. (2009).

· #176

Ajit Varki and Danny Brower (2013), Thomas Suddendorf (2013), Michael Tomasello (2014).

· #177

Jeremy Taylor (2009), Helene Guldberg (2010).

· #178

Virginia Morell (2013), p. 232.

· #179

Robert Sorge et al. (2014).

· #180

Emil Menzel (1974).

· #181

Katie Hall et al. (2014).

· #182

David Premack and Guy Woodruff (1978).

· #183

Frans de Waal (2008), Stephanie Preston (2013).

· #184

Adam Smith (1976 [orig. 1759]), p. 10.

· #185

J. B. Siebenaler and David Caldwell (1956), p. 126.

· #186

Frans de Waal (2005), p. 191.

· #187

Frans de Waal (2009a).

· #188

Shinya Yamamoto et al. (2009).

· #189

Yuko Hattori et al. (2012).

· #190

Henry Wellman et al. (2000).

· #191

Ljerka Ostojicґ et al. (2013).

· #192

Daniel Povinelli (1998).

· #193

Derek Penn and Daniel Povinelli (2007).

· #194

David Leavens et al. (1996), Autumn Hostetter et al. (2001).

· #195

Catherine Crockford et al. (2012), Anne Marijke Schel et al. (2013).

· #196

Brian Hare et al. (2001).

· #197

Hika Kuroshima et al. (2003), Anne Marije Overduin-de Vries et al. (2013).

· #198

Anna Ilona Roberts et al. (2013).

· #199

Daniel Povinelli (2000).

· #200

Esther Herrmann et al. (2007).

· #201

Yuko Hattori et al. (2010).

· #202

Allan Gardner et al. (2011).

· #203

Frans de Waal (2001), de Waal et al. (2008), Christophe Boesch (2007).

· #204

Nathan Emery and Nicky Clayton (2001).

· #205

Thomas Bugnyar and Bernd Heinrich (2005); see also «Quoth the Raven», Economist, May 13, 2004.

· #206

Josep Call and Michael Tomasello (2008).

· #207

Atsuko Saito and Kazutaka Shinozuka (2013), p. 689.

· #208

Brian Hare et al. (2002), Бdбm Miklуsi et al. (2003), Hare and Michael Tomasello (2005), Monique Udell et al. (2008, 2010), Mбrta Gбcsi et al. (2009).

· #209

Miho Nagasawa et al. (2015).

· #210

Leslie White (1959), p. 5.

· #211

Edward Thorndike (1898), p. 50, Michael Tomasello and Josep Call (1997).

· #212

Michael Tomasello et al. (1993ab), David Bjorklund et al. (2000).

· #213

Victoria Horner and Andrew Whiten (2005).

· #214

David Premack (2010).

· #215

Andrew Whiten et al. (2005), Victoria Horner et al. (2006), Kristin Bonnie et al. (2006), Horner and Frans de Waal (2010), Horner and de Waal (2009).

· #216

Michael Huffman (1996), p. 276.

· #217

Edwin van Leeuwen et al. (2014).

· #218

William McGrew and Caroline Tutin (1978).

· #219

Frans de Waal (2001), de Waal and Kristin Bonnie (2009).

· #220

Elizabeth Lonsdorf et al. (2004).

· #221

Victoria Horner et al. (2010), Rachel Kendal et al. (2015).

· #222

Christine Caldwell and Andrew Whiten (2002).

· #223

Friederike Range and Zsуfia Virбnyi (2014).

· #224

Jeremy Kagan (2004), David Premack (2007).

· #225

Charles Darwin, Notebook M, 1838, http://darwin-online.org.uk.

· #226

Lydia Hopper et al. (2008).

· #227

Frans de Waal (2009a), Delia Fuhrmann et al. (2014).

· #228

Suzana Herculano-Houzel et al. (2011, 2014).

· #229

Josef Parvizi (2009).

· #230

Robert Barton (2012).

· #231

Michael Corballis (2002), William Calvin (1982).

· #232

Natasja de Groot et al. (2010)

· #233

The «Mens vs aap – experiment» video can be seen at http://bit.ly/ 1gb LiCm.

· #234

Christopher Martin et al. (2014).

· #235

Frans de Waal (2007 [orig. 1982]).

· #236

Benjamin Beck (1982).

· #237

Alaska governor Sarah Palin, policy speech, Pittsburgh, PA, October 24, 2008.

· #238

Frans de Waal (2007 [orig. 1982]).

· #239

Donald Griffin (1976).

· #240

Hans Kummer (1971), Kummer (1995).

· #241

Jane Goodall (1971).

· #242

Christopher Martin et al. (2014).

· #243

Frans de Waal and Jan van Hooff (1981).

· #244

Frans de Waal (2007 [orig. 1982]).

· #245

Marcel Foster et al. (2009)

· #246

Toshisada Nishida et al. (1992).

· #247

Toshisada Nishida (1983), Nishida and Kazuhiko Hosaka (1996).

· #248

Victoria Horner et al. (2011).

· #249

Malini Suchak and Frans de Waal (2012).

· #250

Hans Kummer et al. (1990), Frans de Waal (1991).

· #251

Richard Byrne and Andrew Whiten (1988).

· #252

Robin Dunbar (1998b).

· #253

Thomas Geissmann and Mathias Orgeldinger (2000).

· #254

Sarah Gouzoules et al. (1984).

· #255

Dorothy Cheney and Robert Seyfarth (1992).

· #256

Susan Perry et al. (2004).

· #257

Susan Perry (2008), p. 47.

· #258

Katie Slocombe and Klaus Zuberb?hler (2007).

· #259

Dorothy Cheney and Robert Seyfarth (1986, 1989), Filippo Aureli et al. (1992).

· #260

Peter Judge (1991), Judge and Sonia Mullen (2005).

· #261

Ronald Schusterman et al. (2003).

· #262

Dalila Bovet and David Washburn (2003), Regina Paxton et al. (2010).

· #263

Jorg Massen et al. (2014a).

· #264

Meredith Crawford (1937).

· #265

Kim Mendres and Frans de Waal (2000).

· #266

Alicia Melis et al. (2006a), Alicia Melis et al. (2006b), Sarah Brosnan et al. (2006).

· #267

Frans de Waal and Michelle Berger (2000).

· #268

Ernst Fehr and Urs Fischbacher (2003).

· #269

Robert Boyd (2006), countered by Kevin Langergraber et al. (2007).

· #270

Malini Suchak and Frans de Waal (2012), Jingzhi Tan and Brian Hare (2013).

· #271

National Academies of Sciences and Engineering, Keck Futures Initiative Conference, Irvine, CA, November 2014.

· #272

E. O. Wilson (1975).

· #273

Michael Tomasello (2008), Gary Stix (2014), p. 77.

· #274

Emil Menzel (1972).

· #275

Joshua Plotnik et al. (2011).

· #276

Ingrid Visser et al. (2008).

· #277

Christophe Boesch and Hedwige Boesch-Achermann (2000).

· #278

The two photographs are featured in Gary Stix (2014).

· #279

Malini Suchak et al. (2014).

· #280

Michael Wilson et al. (2014).

· #281

Sarah Calcutt et al. (2014).

· #282

Hal Whitehead and Luke Rendell (2015).

· #283

Sarah Brosnan and Frans de Waal (2003). See also «Two Monkeys Were Paid Unequally,» TED Blog Video, http://bit.ly/1GO05tz.

· #284

Sarah Brosnan et al. (2010), Proctor et al. (2013).

· #285

Frederieke Range et al. (2008), Claudia Wascher and Thomas Bugnyar (2013), Sarah Brosnan and Frans de Waal (2014).

· #286

Redouan Bshary and Ronald Noё (2003).

· #287

Redouan Bshary et al. (2006).

· #288

Alexander Vail et al. (2014).

· #289

Toshisada Nishida and Kazuhiko Hosaka (1996).

· #290

Jorg Massen et al. (2014b).

· #291

Caitlin O'Connell (2015).

· #292

Robert Browning (2006 [orig. 1896]), p. 113.

· #293

Otto Tinklepaugh (1928).

· #294

Gema Martin-Ordas et al. (2013).

· #295

Marcel Proust (1913), p. 48.

· #296

Karline Janmaat et al. (2014), Simone Ban et al. (2014).

· #297

Endel Tulving (1972, 2001).

· #298

Nicola Clayton and Anthony Dickinson (1998).

· #299

Stephanie Babb and Jonathon Crystal (2006).

· #300

Sadie Dingfelder (2007), p. 26.

· #301

Thomas Suddendorf (2013), p. 103.

· #302

Endel Tulving (2005).

· #303

Mathias Osvath (2009).

· #304

Lucia Jacobs and Emily Liman (1991).

· #305

Nicholas Mulcahy and Josep Call (2006).

· #306

Mathias Osvath and Helena Osvath (2008), Osvath and Gema Martin-Ordas (2014).

· #307

Juliane Br?uer and Josep Call (2015).

· #308

Caroline Raby et al. (2007), Sйrgio Correia et al. (2007), William Roberts (2012).

· #309

Nicola Koyama et al. (2006).

· #310

Carel van Schaik et al. (2013).

· #311

Anoopum Gupta et al. (2010), Andrew Wikenheiser and David Redish (2012).

· #312

Sara Shettleworth (2007), Michael Corballis (2013).

· #313

In 2011 French media compared Dominique Strauss-Kahn to a «chimpanz? en rut.»

· #314

Richard Byrne (1995), p. 133, Robin Dunbar (1998a).

· #315

Ramona Morris and Desmond Morris (1966).

· #316

Philip Kitcher (2006), p. 136.

· #317

Harry Frankfurt (1971), p. 11, also Roy Baumeister (2008).

· #318

Jessica Bramlett et al. (2012).

· #319

Michael Beran (2002), Theodore Evans and Beran (2007).

· #320

Friederike Hilleman et al. (2014).

· #321

Adrienne Koepke et al. (in press).

· #322

Walter Mischel and Ebbe Ebbesen (1970).

· #323

David Leavens et al. (2001).

· #324

Walter Mischel et al. (1972), p. 217.

· #325

Michael Beran (2015).

· #326

Sarah Boysen and Gary Berntson (1995).

· #327

Edward Tolman (1927).

· #328

David Smith et al. (1995).

· #329

Robert Hampton (2004).

· #330

Allison Foote and Jonathon Crystal (2007).

· #331

Arii Watanabe et al. (2014).

· #332

Josep Call and Malinda Carpenter (2001), Robert Hampton et al. (2004).

· #333

Alastair Inman and Sara Shettleworth (1999).

· #334

The Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness, July 7, 2012, Francis Crick Memorial Conference at Churchill College, University of Cambridge.

· #335

Joshua Plotnik et al. (2006). See also «Mirror Self-Recognition in Asian Elephants» (video), Jan. 11, 2015, http://bit.ly/1spFNoA.

· #336

Joshua Plotnik et al. (2014).

· #337

Michael Garstang et al. (2014).

· #338

Ulric Neisser (1967), p. 3.

· #339

Lucy Bates et al. (2007).

· #340

Karen McComb et al. (2014).

· #341

Karen McComb et al. (2011).

· #342

Joseph Soltis et al. (2014).

· #343

Gordon Gallup Jr. (1970), James Anderson and Gallup (2011).

· #344

Daniel Povinelli (1987).

· #345

Emanuela Cenami Spada et al. (1995), Mark Bekoff and Paul Sherman (2003).

· #346

Matthew Jorgensen et al. (1995), Koji Toda and Shigeru Watanabe (2008).

· #347

Doris Bischof-K?hler (1991), Carolyn Zahn-Waxler et al. (1992), Frans de Waal (2008).

· #348

Abigail Rajala et al. (2010), Liangtang Chang et al. (2015).

· #349

Frans de Waal et al. (2005).

· #350

Philippe Rochat (2003).

· #351

Diana Reiss and Lori Marino (2001).

· #352

Helmut Prior et al. (2008).

· #353

My translation of J?rgen Lethmate and Gerti D?cker (1973), p. 254.

· #354

Ralph Buchsbaum et al. (1987 [orig. 1938]).

· #355

Roland Anderson and Jennifer Mather (2010).

· #356

Katherine Harmon Courage (2013), p. 115.

· #357

Roland Anderson et al. (2010).

· #358

Jennifer Mather et al. (2010), Roger Hanlon and John Messenger (1996).

· #359

Roland Anderson et al. (2002).

· #360

Aristotle (1991), p. 323.

· #361

Jennifer Mather and Roland Anderson (1999), Sarah Zylinski (2015).

· #362

Roger Hanlon (2007), Hanlon (2013).

· #363

Roger Hanlon et al. (1999).

· #364

Culum Brown et al. (2012).

· #365

Robert Jackson (1992), Stim Wilcox and Jackson (2002).

· #366

Andrew Whiten et al. (2005).

· #367

Edwin van Leeuwen and Daniel Haun (2013).

· #368

Susan Perry (2009); see also Marietta Dindo et al. (2009).

· #369

Elizabeth Lonsdorf et al. (2004).

· #370

Jenny Allen et al. (2013).

· #371

Erica van de Waal et al. (2013).

· #372

Nicolas Claidi?re et al. (2015).

· #373

Frans de Waal and Denise Johanowicz (1993).

· #374

Kristin Bonnie and Frans de Waal (2007).

· #375

Michio Nakamura et al. (2000).

· #376

Tetsuro Matsuzawa (1994), Noriko Inoue-Nakamura and Matsuzawa (1997).

· #377

Stuart Watson et al. (2015).

· #378

Tetsuro Matsuzawa et al. (2001), Frans de Waal (2001).

· #379

Konrad Lorenz (1952), p. 86.

· #380

Frans de Waal and Jennifer Pokorny (2008).

· #381

Frans de Waal and Peter Tyack (2003).

· #382

Stephanie King et al. (2013).

· #383

Laela Sayigh et al. (1999), Vincent Janik et al. (2006).

· #384

Jason Bruck (2013).

· #385

Stephanie King and Vincent Janik (2013).

· #386

Marc Bekoff and Colin Allen (1997), p. 316.

· #387

Anthony Tramontin and Eliot Brenowitz (2000).

· #388

Jonathan Marks (2002), p. xvi.

· #389

David Hume (1985 [orig. 1739]), p. 226, with thanks to Gerald Massey.

· #390

«Study: Dolphins Not So Intelligent on Land,» Onion, Feb. 15, 2006.

· #391

Jolyon Troscianko et al. (2012).

· #392

Donald Dewsbury (2000).

· #393

Frans de Waal and Sarah Brosnan (2006).

· #394

Frans de Waal and Pier Francesco Ferrari (2010).

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