нига: ƒостаточно ли мы умны, чтобы судить об уме животных?

Ѕиблиографи€

<<< Ќазад
¬перед >>>

Ѕиблиографи€

Adler, J. 2008. Thinking like a monkey. Smithsonian Magazine, January. Aitchison, J. 2000. The Seeds of Speech: Language Origin and Evolution, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Alexander, M. G., and T. D. Fisher. 2003. Truth and consequences: Using the bogus pipeline to examine sex differences in self-reported sexuality. Journal of Sex Research 40:27Ц35.

Allen, B. 1997. The chimpanzee's tool. Common Knowledge 6:34Ц51.

Allen, J., M. Weinrich, W. Hoppitt, and L. Rendell. 2013. Network-based diffusion analysis reveals cultural transmission of lobtail feeding in humpback whales. Science 340:485Ц88.

Anderson, J. R., and G. G. Gallup. 2011. Which primates recognize themselves in mirrors? Plos Biology 9: e1001024.

Anderson, R. C., and J. A. Mather. 2010. It's all in the cues: Octopuses (Enter octopus dof leini) learn to open jars. Ferrantia 59:8Ц13.

Anderson, R. C., J. A. Mather, M. Q. Monette, and S. R. M. Zimsen. 2010. Octopuses (Enteroctopus dof leini) recognize individual humans. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 13:261Ц72.

Anderson, R. C., J. B. Wood, and R. A. Byrne. 2002. Octopus senescence: The beginning of the end. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 5:275Ц83. Aristotle. 1991. History of Animals, trans. D. M. Balme. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Arnold, K., and K. Zuberb?hler. 2008. Meaningful call combinations in a nonhuman primate. Current Biology 18: R202Ц3.

Auersperg, A. M. I., B. Szabo, A. M. P. Von Bayern, and A. Kacelnik. 2012. Spontaneous innovation in tool manufacture and use in a Goffin's cockatoo. Current Biology 22: R903Ц4.

Aureli, F., R. Cozzolinot, C. Cordischif, and S. Scucchi. 1992. Kin-oriented redirection among Japanese macaques: An expression of a revenge system? Animal Behaviour 44:283Ц91.

Azevedo, F. A. C., et al. 2009. Equal numbers of neuronal and nonneuronal cells make the human brain an isometrically scaled-up primate brain. Journal of Comparative Neurology 513:532Ц41.

Babb, S. J., and J. D. Crystal. 2006. Episodic-like memory in the rat. Current Biology 16:1317Ц21.

Ban, S. D., C. Boesch, and K. R. L. Janmaat. 2014. Ta? chimpanzees anticipate revisiting high-valued fruit trees from further distances. Animal Cognition 17:1353Ц64.

Barton, R. A. 2012. Embodied cognitive evolution and the cerebellum. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 367:2097Ц107.

Bates, L. A., et al. 2007. Elephants classify human ethnic groups by odor and garment color. Current Biology 17:1938Ц42.

Baumeister, R. F. 2008. Free will in scientific psychology. Perspectives on Psychological Science 3:14Ц19.

Beach, F. A. 1950. The snark was a boojum. American Psychologist 5:115Ц24. Beck, B. B. 1967. A study of problem-solving by gibbons. Behaviour 28: 95Ц109.

Ц. 1980. Animal Tool Behavior: The Use and Manufacture of Tools by Animals. New York: Garland STPM Press.

Ц. 1982. Chimpocentrism: Bias in cognitive ethology. Journal of Human Evolution 11:3Ц17.

Bekoff, M., and C. Allen. 1997. Cognitive ethology: Slayers, skeptics, and proponents. In Anthropomorphism, Anecdotes, and Animals: The Emperor's New Clothes? ed. R. W. Mitchell, N. Thompson, and L. Miles, 313Ц34. Albany: SUN Y Press.

Bekoff, M., and P. W. Sherman. 2003. Ref lections on animal selves. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19:176Ц80.

Bekoff, M., C. Allen, and G. M. Burghardt, eds. 2002. The Cognitive Animal: Empirical and Theoretical Perspectives on Animal Cognition. Cambridge, MA: Bradford.

Beran, M. J. 2002. Maintenance of self-imposed delay of gratification by four chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus). Journal of General Psychology 129:49Ц66.

Ц. 2015. The comparative science of "self-control": What are we talking about? Frontiers in Psychology 6:51.

Berns, G. S. 2013. How Dogs Love Us: A Neuroscientist and His Adopted Dog Decode the Canine Brain. Boston: Houghton Miff lin.

Berns, G. S., A. Brooks, and M. Spivak. 2013. Replicability and heterogeneity of awake unrestrained canine f MRI responses. Plos ONE 8: e81698.

Bird, C. D., and N. J. Emery. 2009. Rooks use stones to raise the water level to reach a f loating worm. Current Biology 19:1410Ц14.

Bischof-K?hler, D. 1991. The development of empathy in infants. In Infant Development: Perspectives From German-Speaking Countries, ed. M. Lamb and M. Keller, 245Ц73. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Bjorklund, D. F., J. M. Bering, and P. Ragan. 2000. A two-year longitudinal study of deferred imitation of object manipulation in a juvenile chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus). Developmental Psychobiology 37:229Ц37.

Boesch, C. 2007. What makes us human? The challenge of cognitive cross-species comparison. Journal of Comparative Psychology 121:227Ц40.

Boesch, C., and H. Boesch-Achermann. 2000. The Chimpanzees of the Ta? Forest: Behavioural Ecology and Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Boesch, C., J. Head, and M. M. Robbins. 2009. Complex tool sets for honey extraction among chimpanzees in Loango National Park, Gabon. Journal of Human Evolution 56:560Ц69.

Bolhuis, J. J., and C. D. L. Wynne. 2009. Can evolution explain how minds work? Nature 458:832Ц33.

Bonnie, K. E., and F. B. M. de Waal. 2007. Copying without rewards: Socially inf luenced foraging decisions among brown capuchin monkeys. Animal Cognition 10: 283Ц92.

Bonnie, K. E., V. Horner, A. Whiten, and F. B. M. de Waal. 2006. Spread of arbitrary conventions among chimpanzees: A controlled experiment. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 274:367Ц72.

Bovet, D., and D. A. Washburn. 2003. Rhesus macaques categorize unknown conspecifics according to their dominance relations. Journal of Comparative Psychology 117:400Ц5.

Boyd, R. 2006. The puzzle of human sociality. Science 314:1555Ц56.

Boysen, S. T., and G. G. Berntson. 1989. Numerical competence in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Comparative Psychology 103:23Ц31.

Ц. 1995. Responses to quantity: Perceptual versus cognitive mechanisms in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 21:82Ц86.

Bramlett, J. L., B. M. Perdue, T. A. Evans, and M. J. Beran. 2012. Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) let lesser rewards pass them by to get better rewards. Animal Cognition 15:963Ц69.

Br?uer, J., et al. 2006. Making inferences about the location of hidden food: Social dog, causal ape. Journal of Comparative Psychology 120: 38Ц47.

Br?uer, J., and J. Call. 2015. Apes produce tools for future use. American Journal of Primatology 77:254Ц63.

Breland, K., and M. Breland. 1961. The misbehavior of organisms. American Psychologist 16:681Ц84.

Breuer, T., M. Ndoundou-Hockemba, and V. Fishlock. 2005. First observation of tool use in wild gorillas. Plos Biology 3:2041Ц43.

Brosnan, S. F., et al. 2010. Mechanisms underlying responses to inequitable outcomes in chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour 79:1229Ц37.

Brosnan, S. F., and F. B. M. de Waal. 2003. Monkeys reject unequal pay. Nature 425:297Ц99.

Ц. 2014. The evolution of responses to (un) fairness. Science 346:1251776. Brosnan, S. F., C. Freeman, and F. B. M. de Waal. 2006. Partner's behavior, not

reward distribution, determines success in an unequal cooperative task in capuchin monkeys. American Journal of Primatology 68:713Ц24.

Brown, C., M. P. Garwood, and J. E. Williamson. 2012. It pays to cheat: Tactical deception in a cephalopod social signalling system. Biology Letters 8:729Ц32. Browning, R. 2006 [orig. 1896]. The Poetical Works. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger. Bruck, J. N. 2013. Decades-long social memory in bottlenose dolphins. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280: 20131726.

Bshary, R., and R. No?. 2003. Biological markets: The ubiquitous inf luence of partner choice on the dynamics of cleaner fish-client reef fish interactions. In Genetic and Cultural Evolution of Cooperation, ed. P. Hammerstein, 167Ц84. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Bshary, R., A. Hohner, K. Ait-El-Djoudi, and H. Fricke. 2006. Interspecific communicative and coordinated hunting between groupers and giant moray eels in the Red Sea. Plos Biology 4: e431.

Buchsbaum, R., M. Buchsbaum, J. Pearse, and V. Pearse. 1987. Animals Without Backbones: An Introduction to the Invertebrates. 3rd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Buckley, J., et al. 2010. Biparental mucus feeding: A unique example of parental care in an Amazonian cichlid. Journal of Experimental Biology 213:3787Ц95.

Buckley, L. A., et al. 2011. Too hungry to learn? Hungry broiler breeders fail to learn a y-maze food quantity discrimination task. Animal Welfare 20: 469Ц81. Bugnyar, T., and B. Heinrich. 2005. Ravens, Corvus corax, differentiate between knowledgeable and ignorant competitors. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 272:1641Ц46.

Burghardt, G. M. 1991. Cognitive ethology and critical anthropomorphism: A snake with two heads and hognose snakes that play dead. In Cognitive Ethology: The Minds of Other Animals: Essays in Honor of Donald R. Griffin, ed. C. A. Ristau, 53Ц90. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Burkhardt, R. W. 2005. Patterns of Behavior: Konrad Lorenz, Niko Tinbergen, and the Founding of Ethology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Burrows, A. M., et al. 2006. Muscles of facial expression in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): Descriptive, ecological and phylogenetic contexts. Journal of Anatomy 208:153Ц68.

Byrne, R. 1995. The Thinking Ape: The Evolutionary Origins of Intelligence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Byrne, R., and A. Whiten. 1988. Machiavellian Intelligence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Calcutt, S. E., et al. 2014. Captive chimpanzees share diminishing resources. Behaviour 151:1967Ц82.

Caldwell, C. C., and A. Whiten. 2002. Evolutionary perspectives on imitation: Is a comparative psychology of social learning possible? Animal Cognition 5:193Ц208.

Call, J. 2004. Inferences about the location of food in the great apes. Journal of Comparative Psychology 118:232Ц41.

Ц. 2006. Descartes' two errors: Reason and ref lection in the great apes. In Rational Animals, ed. S. Hurley and M. Nudds, 219Ц234. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Call, J., and M. Carpenter. 2001. Do apes and children know what they have seen? Animal Cognition 3:207Ц20.

Call, J., and M. Tomasello. 2008. Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? 30 Years Later. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12:187Ц92.

Callaway, E. 2012. Alex the parrot's last experiment shows his mathematical genius. Nature News Blog, Feb. 20, http://bit.ly / 1eYgqoD.

Calvin, W. H. 1982. Did throwing stones shape hominid brain evolution? Ethology and Sociobiology 3:115Ц24.

Candland, D. K. 1993. Feral Children and Clever Animals: Reflections on Human Nature. New York: Oxford University Press.

Cenami Spada, E., F. Aureli, P. Verbeek, and F. B. M. de Waal. 1995. The self as reference point: Can animals do without it? In The Self in Infancy: Theory and Research, ed. P. Rochat, 193Ц215. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Chang, L., et al. 2015. Mirror-induced self-directed behaviors in rhesus monkeys after visual-somatosensory training. Current Biology 25:212Ц17.

Cheney, D. L., and R. M. Seyfarth. 1986. The recognition of social alliances by vervet monkeys. Animal Behaviour 34 (1986): 1722Ц31.

Ц. 1989. Redirected aggression and reconciliation among vervet monkeys, Cercopithecus aethiops. Behaviour 110: 258Ц75.

Ц. 1990. How Monkeys See the World: Inside the Mind of Another Species. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Claidi?re, N., et al. 2015. Selective and contagious prosocial resource donation in capuchin monkeys, chimpanzees and humans. Scientific Reports 5:7631. Clayton, N. S., and A. Dickinson. 1998. Episodic-like memory during cache recovery by scrub jays. Nature 395:272Ц74.

Corballis, M. C. 2002. From Hand to Mouth: The Origins of Language. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Ц. 2013. Mental time travel: A case for evolutionary continuity. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17:5Ц6.

Corbey, R. 2005. The Metaphysics of Apes: Negotiating the Animal-Human Boundary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Correia, S. P. C., A. Dickinson, and N. S. Clayton. 2007. Western scrub-jays anticipate future needs independently of their current motivational state. Current Biology 17:856Ц61.

Courage, K. H. 2013. Octopus! The Most Mysterious Creature in the Sea. New York: Current.

Crawford, M. 1937. The cooperative solving of problems by young chimpanzees. Comparative Psychology Monographs 14:1Ц88.

Crockford, C., R. M. Wittig, R. Mundry, and K. Zuberb?hler. 2012. Wild chimpanzees inform ignorant group members of danger. Current Biology 22:142Ц46.

Cs?nyi, V. 2000. If Dogs Could Talk: Exploring the Canine Mind. New York: North Point Press.

Cullen, E. 1957. Adaptations in the kittiwake to cliff-nesting. Ibis 99:275Ц302. Darwin, C. 1982 [orig. 1871]. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Davila Ross, M., M. J. Owren, and E. Zimmermann. 2009. Reconstructing the evolution of laughter in great apes and humans. Current Biology 19:1106Ц11.

de Groot, N. G., et al. 2010. AIDS-protective HLA-B*27 / B*57 and chimpanzee MHC class I molecules target analogous conserved areas of HIV-1 / SIVcpz. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 107:15175Ц80.

de Waal, F. B. M. 1991. Complementary methods and convergent evidence in the study of primate social cognition. Behaviour 118:297Ц320.

Ц. 1996. Good Natured: The Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans and Other Animals. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Ц. 1997. Bonobo: The Forgotten Ape. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Ц. 1999. Anthropomorphism and anthropodenial: Consistency in our thinking about humans and other animals. Philosophical Topics 27:255Ц80.

Ц. 2000. Primates: A natural heritage of conf lict resolution. Science 289: 586Ц90.

Ц. 2001. The Ape and the Sushi Master: Cultural Ref lections by a Primatologist. New York: Basic Books.

Ц. 2003a. Darwin's legacy and the study of primate visual communication. In Emotions Inside Out: 130 Years After Darwin's ЂThe Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals,ї ed. P. Ekman, J. J. Campos, R. J. Davidson, and F. B. M. de Waal, 7Ц31. New York: New York Academy of Sciences.

Ц. 2003b. Silent invasion: Imanishi's primatology and cultural bias in science. Animal Cognition 6:293Ц99.

Ц. 2005. Our Inner Ape. New York: Riverhead.

Ц. 2007 [orig. 1982]. Chimpanzee Politics: Power and Sex Among Apes. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Ц. 2008. Putting the altruism back into altruism: The evolution of empathy. Annual Review of Psychology 59:279Ц300.

Ц. 2009a. The Age of Empathy: Nature's Lessons for a Kinder Society. New York: Harmony.

Ц. 2009b. Darwin's last laugh. Nature 460:175.

de Waal, F. B. M., and M. Berger. 2000. Payment for labour in monkeys. Nature 404:563.

de Waal, F. B. M., C. Boesch, V. Horner, and A. Whiten. 2008. Comparing children and apes not so simple. Science 319:569.

de Waal, F. B. M., and K. E. Bonnie. 2009. In tune with others: The social side of primate culture. In The Question of Animal Culture, ed. K. Laland and B. G. Galef, 19Ц39. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

de Waal, F. B. M., and S. F. Brosnan. 2006. Simple and complex reciprocity in primates. In Cooperation in Primates and Humans: Mechanisms and Evolution, ed. P. M. Kappeler and C. van Schaik, 85Ц105. Berlin: Springer.

de Waal, F. B. M., M. Dindo, C. A. Freeman, and M. Hall. 2005. The monkey in the mirror: Hardly a stranger. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 102:11140Ц47.

de Waal, F. B. M., and P. F. Ferrari. 2010. Towards a bottom-up perspective on animal and human cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14:201Ц7.

de Waal, F. B. M., and D. L. Johanowicz. 1993. Modification of reconciliation behavior through social experience: An experiment with two macaque species. Child Development 64:897Ц908.

de Waal, F. B. M., and J. Pokorny. 2008. Faces and behinds: Chimpanzee sex perception. Advanced Science Letters 1:99Ц103.

de Waal, F. B. M., and P. L. Tyack, eds. 2003. Animal Social Complexity: Intelligence, Culture, and Individualized Societies. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

de Waal, F. B. M., and J. van Hooff. 1981. Side-directed communication and agonistic interactions in chimpanzees. Behaviour 77:164Ц98.

Dewsbury, D. A. 2000. Comparative cognition in the 1930s. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 7:267Ц83.

Ц. 2006. Monkey Farm: A History of the Yerkes Laboratories of Primate Biology, Orange Park, Florida, 1930Ц1965. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press.

Dindo, M., A. Whiten, and F. B. M. de Waal. 2009. In-group conformity sustains different foraging traditions in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Plos ONE 4: e7858.

Dinets, V., J. C. Brueggen, and J. D. Brueggen. 2013. Crocodilians use tools for hunting. Ethology Ecology and Evolution 27:74Ц78.

Dingfelder, S. D. 2007. Can rats reminisce? Monitor on Psychology 38:26. Domjan, M., and B. G. Galef. 1983. Biological constraints on instrumental and classical conditioning: Retrospect and prospect. Animal Learning and Behavior 11:151Ц61.

Ducheminsky, N., P. Henzi, and L. Barrett. 2014. Responses of vervet monkeys in large troops to terrestrial and aerial predator alarm calls. Behavioral Ecology 25:1474Ц84.

Dunbar, R. 1998a. Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Ц. 1998b. The social brain hypothesis. Evolutionary Anthropology 6:178Ц90. Emery, N. J., and N. S. Clayton. 2001. Effects of experience and social context on prospective caching strategies by scrub jays. Nature 414:443Ц46.

Ц. 2004. The mentality of crows: Convergent evolution of intelligence in corvids and apes. Science 306:1903Ц7.

Epstein, R. 1987. The spontaneous interconnection of four repertoires of behavior in a pigeon. Journal of Comparative Psychology 101:197Ц201.

Epstein, R., R. P. Lanza, and B. F. Skinner. 1981. "Self-awareness" in the pigeon. Science 212:695Ц96.

Evans, T. A., and M. J. Beran. 2007. Chimpanzees use self-distraction to cope with impulsivity. Biology Letters 3:599Ц602.

Falk, J. L. 1958. The grooming behavior of the chimpanzee as a reinforcer. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 1:83Ц85.

Fehr, E., and U. Fischbacher. 2003. The nature of human altruism. Nature 425:785Ц91.

Ferris, C. F., et al. 2001. Functional imaging of brain activity in conscious monkeys responding to sexually arousing cues. Neuroreport 12:2231Ц36.

Finn, J. K., T. Tregenza, and M. D. Norman. 2009. Defensive tool use in a coconut-carrying octopus. Current Biology 19: R1069Ц70.

Fodor, J. 1975. The Language of Thought. New York: Crowell.

Foerder, P., et al. 2011. Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant. Plos ONE 6 (8):e23251.

Foote, A. L., and J. D. Crystal. 2007. Metacognition in the rat. Current Biology 17:551Ц55.

Foster, M. W., et al. 2009. Alpha male chimpanzee grooming patterns: Implications for dominance "style." American Journal of Primatology 71:136Ц44.

Fragaszy, D. M., E. Visalberghi, and L. M. Fedigan. 2004. The Complete Capuchin: The Biology of the Genus Cebus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Frankfurt, H. G. 1971. Freedom of the will and the concept of a person. Journal of Philosophy 68:5Ц20.

Fuhrmann, D., A. Ravignani, S. Marshall-Pescini, and A. Whiten. 2014. Synchrony and motor mimicking in chimpanzee observational learning. Scientific Reports 4:5283.

G?csi, M., et al. 2009. Explaining dog wolf differences in utilizing human pointing gestures: Selection for synergistic shifts in the development of some social skills. Plos ONE 4: e6584.

Galef, B. G. 1990. The question of animal culture. Human Nature 3:157Ц78. Gallup, G. G. 1970. Chimpanzees: Self-recognition. Science 167:86Ц87.

Garcia, J., D. J. Kimeldorf, and R. A. Koelling. 1955. Conditioned aversion to saccharin resulting from exposure to gamma radiation. Science 122:157Ц58. Gardner, R. A., M. H. Scheel, and H. L. Shaw. 2011. Pygmalion in the laboratory. American Journal of Psychology 124:455Ц61.

Garstang, M., et al. 2014. Response of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) to seasonal changes in rainfall. Plos ONE 9: e108736.

Gaulin, S. J. C., and R. W. Fitzgerald. 1989. Sexual selection for spatial-learning ability. Animal Behaviour 37:322Ц31.

Geissmann, T., and M. Orgeldinger. 2000. The relationship between duet songs and pair bonds in siamangs, Hylobates syndactylus. Animal Behaviour 60: 805Ц9. Goodall, J. 1967. My Friends the Wild Chimpanzees. Washington, DC: National

Geographic Society.

Ц. 1971. In the Shadow of Man. Boston: Houghton Miff lin.

Ц. 1986. The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Belknap.

Gould, J. L., and C. G. Gould. 1999. The Animal Mind. New York: W. H. Freeman. Gouzoules, S., H. Gouzoules, and P. Marler. 1984. Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) screams: Representational signaling in the recruitment of agonistic aid. Animal Behaviour 32:182Ц93.

Griffin, D. R. 1976. The Question of Animal Awareness: Evolutionary Continuity of Mental Experience. New York: Rockefeller University Press.

Ц. 2001. Return to the magic well: Echolocation behavior of bats and responses of insect prey. Bioscience 51:555Ц56.

Gruber, T., Z. Clay, and K. Zuberb?hler. 2010. A comparison of bonobo and chimpanzee tool use: Evidence for a female bias in the Pan lineage. Animal Behaviour 80:1023Ц33.

Guldberg, H. 2010. Just Another Ape? Exeter, UK: Imprint Academic.

Gumert, M. D., M. Kluck, and S. Malaivijitnond. 2009. The physical characteristics and usage patterns of stone axe and pounding hammers used by long-tailed macaques in the Andaman Sea region of Thailand. American Journal of Primatology 71:594Ц608.

G?nther, M. M., and C. Boesch. 1993. Energetic costs of nut-cracking behaviour in wild chimpanzees. In Hands of Primates, ed. H. Preuschoft and D. J. Chivers, 109Ц29. Vienna: Springer.

Gupta, A. S., M. A. A. van der Meer, D. S. Touretzky, and A. D. Redish.

2010. Hippocampal replay is not a simple function of experience. Neuron 65:695Ц705.

Guthrie, E. R., and G. P. Horton. 1946. Cats in a Puzzle Box. New York: Rinehart.

Hall, K., et al. 2014. Using cross correlations to investigate how chimpanzees use conspecific gaze cues to extract and exploit information in a foraging competition. American Journal of Primatology 76:932Ц41.

Hamilton, G. 2012. Crows can distinguish faces in a crowd. National Wildlife Federation, Nov. 7, http://bit.ly / 1IqkWaN.

Hampton, R. R. 2001. Rhesus monkeys know when they remember. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98:5359Ц62.

Hampton, R. R., A. Zivin, and E. A. Murray. 2004. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) discriminate between knowing and not knowing and collect information as needed before acting. Animal Cognition 7:239Ц54.

Hanlon, R. T. 2007. Cephalopod dynamic camouf lage. Current Biology 17: R400Ц4.

Ц. 2013. Camouf laged octopus makes marine biologist scream bloody murder (video). Discover, Sept. 13, http://bit.ly / 1RScdid.

Hanlon, R. T., and J. B. Messenger. 1996. Cephalopod Behaviour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hanlon, R. T., J. W. Forsythe, and D. E. Joneschild. 1999. Crypsis, conspicuousness, mimicry and polyphenism as antipredator defences of foraging octopuses on indo-pacific coral reefs, with a method of quantifying crypsis from video tapes. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 66:1Ц22.

Hanus, D., N. Mendes, C. Tennie, and J. Call. 2011. Comparing the performances of apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus) and human children (Homo sapiens) in the f loating peanut task. PLoS ONE 6: e19555.

Hare, B., M. Brown, C. Williamson, and M. Tomasello. 2002. The domestication of social cognition in dogs. Science 298:1634Ц36.

Hare, B., J. Call, and M. Tomasello 2001. Do chimpanzees know what conspecifics know? Animal Behaviour 61:139Ц51.

Hare, B., and M. Tomasello. 2005. Human-like social skills in dogs? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9:440Ц45.

Hare, B., and V. Woods. 2013. The Genius of Dogs: How Dogs Are Smarter Than You Think. New York: Dutton.

Harlow, H. F. 1953. Mice, monkeys, men, and motives. Psychological Review 60: 23Ц32.

Hattori, Y., F. Kano, and M. Tomonaga. 2010. Differential sensitivity to conspecific and allospecific cues in chimpanzees and humans: A comparative eye-tracking study. Biology Letters 6:610Ц13.

Hattori, Y., K. Leimgruber, K. Fujita, and F. B. M. de Waal. 2012. Food-related tolerance in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) varies with knowledge of the partner's previous food-consumption. Behaviour 149:171Ц85.

Heisenberg, W. 1958. Physics and Philosophy: The Revolution in Modern Science. London: Allen and Unwin.

Herculano-Houzel, S. 2009. The human brain in numbers: A linearly scaled-up primate brain. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 3 (2009): 1Ц11.

Ц. 2011. Brains matter, bodies maybe not: The case for examining neuron numbers irrespective of body size. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1225:191Ц99.

Herculano-Houzel, S., et al. 2014. The elephant brain in numbers. Neuroanatomy 8:10.3389 / fnana.2014.00046.

Herrmann, E., et al. 2007. Humans have evolved specialized skills of social cognition: The cultural intelligence hypothesis. Science 317:1360Ц66.

Herrmann, E., V. Wobber, and J. Call. 2008. Great apes' (Pan troglodytes, P. paniscus, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus) understanding of tool functional properties after limited experience. Journal of Comparative Psychology 122:220Ц30.

Heyes, C. 1995. Self-recognition in mirrors: Further ref lections create a hall of mirrors. Animal Behaviour 50: 1533Ц42.

Hillemann, F., T. Bugnyar, K. Kotrschal, and C. A. F. Wascher. 2014. Waiting for better, not for more: Corvids respond to quality in two delay maintenance tasks. Animal Behaviour 90: 1Ц10.

Hirata, S., K. Watanabe, and M. Kawai. 2001. "Sweet-potato washing" revisited. In Primate Origins of Human Cognition and Behavior, ed. T. Matsuzawa, 487Ц508. Tokyo: Springer.

Hobaiter, C., and R. Byrne. 2014. The meanings of chimpanzee gestures. Current Biology 24:1596Ц600.

Hodos, W., and C. B. G. Campbell. 1969. Scala naturae: Why there is no theory in comparative psychology. Psychological Review 76:337Ц50.

Hopper, L. M., S. P. Lambeth, S. J. Schapiro, and A. Whiten. 2008. Observational learning in chimpanzees and children studied through "ghost" conditions. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 275:835Ц40.

Horner, V., et al. 2010. Prestige affects cultural learning in chimpanzees. Plos ONE 5: e10625.

Horner, V., D. J. Carter, M. Suchak, and F. B. M. de Waal. 2011. Spontaneous prosocial choice by chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences, USA 108:13847Ц51.

Horner, V., and F. B. M. de Waal. 2009. Controlled studies of chimpanzee cultural transmission. Progress in Brain Research 178:3Ц15.

Horner, V., A. Whiten, E. Flynn, and F. B. M. de Waal. 2006. Faithful replication of foraging techniques along cultural transmission chains by chimpanzees and children. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103:13878Ц83.

Horowitz, A. 2010. Inside of a Dog: What Dogs See, Smell, and Know. New York: Scribner.

Hostetter, A. B., M. Cantero, and W. D. Hopkins. 2001. Differential use of vocal and gestural communication by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to the attentional status of a human (Homo sapiens). Journal of Comparative Psychology 115:337Ц43.

Howell, T. J., S. Toukhsati, R. Conduit, and P. Bennett. 2013. The perceptions of dog intelligence and cognitive skills (PoDIaCS) survey. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research 8:418Ц24.

Huffman, M. A. 1996. Acquisition of innovative cultural behaviors in nonhuman primates: A case study of stone handling, a socially transmitted behavior in Japanese macaques. In Social Learning in Animals: The Roots of Culture, ed. C. M. Heyes and B. Galef, 267Ц89. San Diego: Academic Press.

Hume, D. 1985 [orig. 1739]. A Treatise of Human Nature. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.

Hunt, G. R. 1996. The manufacture and use of hook tools by New Caledonian crows. Nature 379:249Ц51.

Hunt, G. R., et al. 2007. Innovative pandanus-folding by New Caledonian crows. Australian Journal of Zoology 55:291Ц98.

Hunt, G. R., and R. D. Gray. 2004. The crafting of hook tools by wild New

Caledonian crows. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 271: S88†Ц S90. Hurley, S., and M. Nudds. 2006. Rational Animals? Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Imanishi, K. Man. 1952. Tokyo: Mainichi-Shinbunsha.

Inman, A., and S. J. Shettleworth. 1999. Detecting metamemory in nonverbal subjects: A test with pigeons. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 25:389Ц95.

Inoue, S., and T. Matsuzawa. 2007. Working memory of numerals in chimpanzees. Current Biology 17: R1004†Ц R1005.

Inoue-Nakamura, N., and T. Matsuzawa. 1997. Development of stone tool use by wild chimpanzees. Journal of Comparative Psychology 111:159Ц73.

Itani, J., and A. Nishimura. 1973. The study of infrahuman culture in Japan: A review. In Precultural Primate Behavior, ed. E. Menzel, 26Ц50. Basel: Karger.

Jabr, F. 2014. The science is in: Elephants are even smarter than we realized. Scientific American, Feb. 26.

Jackson, R. R. 1992. Eight-legged tricksters. Bioscience 42:590Ц98.

Jacobs, L. F., and E. R. Liman. 1991. Grey squirrels remember the locations of buried nuts. Animal Behaviour 41:103Ц10.

Janik, V. M., L. S. Sayigh, and R. S. Wells. 2006. Signature whistle contour shape conveys identity information to bottlenose dolphins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103:8293Ц97.

Janmaat, K. R. L., L. Polansky, S. D. Ban, and C. Boesch. 2014. Wild chimpanzees plan their breakfast time, type, and location. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 111:16343Ц48.

Jelbert, S. A., et al. 2014. Using the Aesop's fable paradigm to investigate causal understanding of water displacement by New Caledonian crows. Plos ONE 9: e92895.

Jorgensen, M. J., S. J. Suomi, and W. D. Hopkins. 1995. Using a computerized testing system to investigate the preconceptual self in nonhuman primates and humans. In The Self in Infancy: Theory and Research, ed. P. Rochat, 243Ц256. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Judge, P. G. 1991. Dyadic and triadic reconciliation in pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina). American Journal of Primatology 23:225Ц37.

Judge, P. G., and S. H. Mullen. 2005. Quadratic postconf lict affiliation among bystanders in a hamadryas baboon group. Animal Behaviour 69:1345Ц55.

Kagan, J. 2000. Human morality is distinctive. Journal of Consciousness Studies 7:46Ц48.

Ц. 2004. The uniquely human in human nature. Daedalus 133:77Ц88.

Kaminski, J., J. Call, and J. Fischer. 2004. Word learning in a domestic dog: evidence for fast mapping. Science 304:1682Ц83.

Kendal, R., et al. 2015. Chimpanzees copy dominant and knowledgeable individuals: Implications for cultural diversity. Evolution and Human Behavior 36:65Ц72.

Kinani, J.-F., and D. Zimmerman. 2015. Tool use for food acquisition in a wild mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei). American Journal of Primatology 77:353Ц57.

King, S. L., and V. M. Janik. 2013. Bottlenose dolphins can use learned vocal labels to address each other. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 110: 13216Ц21.

King, S. L., et al. 2013. Vocal copying of individually distinctive signature whistles in bottlenose dolphins. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280: 20130053.

Kitcher, P. 2006. Ethics and evolution: How to get here from there. In Primates and Philosophers: How Morality Evolved, ed. S. Macedo and J. Ober, 120Ц39. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Koepke, A. E., S. L. Gray, and I. M. Pepperberg. 2015. Delayed gratification: A grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) will wait for a better reward. Journal of Comparative Psychology. In press.

K?hler, W. 1925. The Mentality of Apes. New York: Vintage.

Koyama, N. F. 2001. The long-term effects of reconciliation in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Ethology 107:975Ц87.

Koyama, N. F., C. Caws, and F. Aureli. 2006. Interchange of grooming and agonistic support in chimpanzees. International Journal of Primatology 27:1293Ц309.

Kruuk, H. 2003. Niko's Nature: The Life of Niko Tinbergen and His Science of Animal Behaviour. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kummer, H. 1971. Primate Societies: Group Techniques of Ecological Adaptions. Chicago: Aldine.

Ц. 1995. In Quest of the Sacred Baboon: A Scientist's Journey. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Kummer, H., V. Dasser, and P. Hoyningen-Huene. 1990. Exploring primate social cognition: Some critical remarks. Behaviour 112:84Ц98.

Kuroshima, H., et al. 2003. A capuchin monkey recognizes when people do and do not know the location of food. Animal Cognition 6:283Ц91.

Ladygina-Kohts, N. 2002 [orig. 1935]. Infant Chimpanzee and Human Child: A Classic 1935 Comparative Study of Ape Emotions and Intelligence, ed. F. B. M. de Waal. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Langergraber, K. E., J. C. Mitani, and L. Vigilant. 2007. The limited impact of kinship on cooperation in wild chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences USA 104:7786Ц90.

Lanner, R. M. 1996. Made for Each Other: A Symbiosis of Birds and Pines. New York: Oxford University Press.

Leavens, D. A., F. Aureli, W. D. Hopkins, and C. W. Hyatt. 2001. Effects of cognitive challenge on self-directed behaviors by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Primatology 55:1Ц14.

Leavens, D., W. D. Hopkins, and K. A. Bard. 1996. Indexical and referential pointing in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Comparative Psychology 110 (1996): 346Ц53.

Lehrman, D. 1953. A critique of Konrad Lorenz's theory of instinctive behavior. Quarterly Review of Biology 28:337Ц63.

Lethmate, J. 1982. Tool-using skills of orangutans. Journal of Human Evolution 11:49Ц50.

Lethmate, J., and G. D?cker. 1973. Untersuchungen zum Selbsterkennen im Spiegel bei Orang-Utans und einigen anderen Affenarten. Zeitschrift f?r Tierpsychologie 33:248Ц69.

Liebal, K., B. M. Waller, A. M. Burrows, and K. E. Slocombe. 2013. Primate Communication: A Multimodal Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Limongelli, L., S. Boysen, and E. Visalberghi. 1995. Comprehension of cause effect relations in a tool-using task by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Comparative Psychology 109:18Ц26.

Lindauer, M. 1987. Introduction. In Neurobiology and Behavior of Honeybees, ed. R. Menzel and A. Mercer, 1Ц6. Berlin: Springer.

Lonsdorf, E. V., L. E. Eberly, and A. E. Pusey. 2004. Sex differences in learning in chimpanzees. Nature 428:715Ц16.

Lorenz, K. Z. 1941. Vergleichende Bewegungsstudien an Anatinen. Journal f?r Ornithologie 89 (1941): 194Ц294.

Ц. 1952. King Solomon's Ring. London: Methuen, 1952.

Ц. 1981. The Foundations of Ethology. New York: Simon and Schuster. Malcolm, N. 1973. Thoughtless brutes. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 46:5Ц20.

Marais, E. 1969. The Soul of the Ape. New York: Atheneum.

Marks, J. 2002. What It Means to Be 98†% Chimpanzee: Apes, People, and Their Genes. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Martin, C. F., et al. 2014. Chimpanzee choice rates in competitive games match equilibrium game theory predictions. Scientfic Reports 4:5182.

Martin-Ordas, G., D. Berntsen, and J. Call. 2013. Memory for distant past events in chimpanzees and orangutans. Current Biology 23:1438Ц41.

Martin-Ordas, G., J. Call, and F. Colmenares. 2008. Tubes, tables and traps: Great apes solve two functionally equivalent trap tasks but show no evidence of transfer across tasks. Animal Cognition 11:423Ц30.

Marzluff, J. M., et al. 2010. Lasting recognition of threatening people by wild American crows. Animal Behaviour 79:699Ц707.

Marzluff, J. M., and T. Angell. 2005. In the Company of Crows and Ravens. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Marzluff, J. M., R. Miyaoka, S. Minoshima, and D. J. Cross. 2012. Brain imaging reveals neuronal circuitry underlying the crow's perception of human faces. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 109:15912Ц17.

Mason, W. A. 1976. Environmental models and mental modes: Representational processes in the great apes and man. American Psychologist 31:284Ц94.

Massen, J. J. M., A. Pa?ukonis, J. Schmidt, and T. Bugnyar. 2014. Ravens notice dominance reversals among conspecifics within and outside their social group. Nature Communications 5:3679.

Massen, J. J. M., G. Szipl, M. Spreafico, and T. Bugnyar. 2014. Ravens intervene in others' bonding attempts. Current Biology 24:2733Ц36.

Mather, J. A., and R. C. Anderson. 1999. Exploration, play, and habituation in octopuses (Octopus dof leini). Journal of Comparative Psychology 113:333Ц38. Mather, J. A., R. C. Anderson, and J. B. Wood. 2010. Octopus: The Ocean's Intelligent Invertebrate. Portland, OR: Timber Press.

Matsuzawa, T. 1994. Field experiments on use of stone tools by chimpanzees in the wild. In Chimpanzee Cultures, ed. R. W. Wrangham, W. C. McGrew, F. B. M. de Waal, and P. Heltne, 351Ц70. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Ц. 2009. Symbolic representation of number in chimpanzees. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 19:92Ц98.

Matsuzawa, T., et al. 2001. Emergence of culture in wild chimpanzees: education by master-apprenticeship. In Primate Origins of Human Cognition and Behavior, ed. T. Matsuzawa, 557Ц74. New York: Springer.

Mayr, E. 1982. The Growth of Biological Thought. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

McComb, K., et al. 2011. Leadership in elephants: The adaptive value of age. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 274:2943Ц49.

McComb, K., G. Shannon, K. N. Sayialel, and C. Moss. 2014. Elephants can determine ethnicity, gender and age from acoustic cues in human voices. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 111:5433Ц38.

McGrew, W. C. 2010. Chimpanzee technology. Science 328:579Ц80.

Ц. 2013. Is primate tool use special? Chimpanzee and New Caledonian crow compared. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 368:20120422. McGrew, W. C., and C. E. G. Tutin. 1978. Evidence for a social custom in wild chimpanzees? Man 13:243Ц51.

Melis, A. P., B. Hare, and M. Tomasello. 2006a. Chimpanzees recruit the best collaborators. Science 311:1297Ц300.

Ц. 2006b. Engineering cooperation in chimpanzees: Tolerance constraints on cooperation. Animal Behaviour 72:275Ц86.

Mendes, N., D. Hanus, and J. Call. 2007. Raising the level: Orangutans use water as a tool. Biology Letters 3:453Ц55.

Mendres, K. A., and F. B. M. de Waal. 2000. Capuchins do cooperate: The advantage of an intuitive task. Animal Behaviour 60: 523Ц29.

Menzel, E. W. 1972. Spontaneous invention of ladders in a group of young chimpanzees. Folia primatologica 17:87Ц106.

Ц. 1974. A group of young chimpanzees in a one-acre field. In Behavior of Non-Human Primates, ed. A. M. Schrier and F. Stollnitz, 5:83Ц153. New York: Academic Press.

Mercader, J., et al. 2007. 4,300-year-old chimpanzee sites and the origins of percussive stone technology. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104:3043Ц48.

Mikl?si, ?., et al. 2003. A simple reason for a big difference: Wolves do not look back at humans, but dogs do. Current Biology 13:763Ц66.

Mischel, W., and E. B. Ebbesen. 1970. Attention in delay of gratification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 16:329Ц37.

Mischel, W., E. B. Ebbesen, and A. R. Zeiss. 1972. Cognitive and attentional mechanisms in delay of gratification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 21:204Ц18.

Moore, B. R. 1973. The role of directed pavlovian responding in simple instrumental learning in the pigeon. In Constraints on Learning, ed. R. A. Hinde and J. S. Hinde, 159Ц87. London: Academic Press.

Ц. 1992. Avian movement imitation and a new form of mimicry: Tracing the evoluting of a complex form of learning. Behaviour 122:231Ц63.

Ц. 2004. The evolution of learning. Biological Review 79:301Ц35.

Moore, B. R., and S. Stuttard. 1979. Dr. Guthrie and Felis domesticus or: Tripping over the cat. Science 205:1031Ц33.

Morell, V. 2013. Animal Wise: The Thoughts and Emotions of Our Fellow Creatures. New York: Crown.

Morgan, C. L. 1894. An Introduction to Comparative Psychology. London: Scott.

Ц. 1903. An Introduction to Comparative Psychology, new ed. London: Scott. Morris, D. 2010. Retrospective: Beginnings. In Tinbergen's Legacy in Behaviour: Sixty Years of Landmark Stickleback Papers, ed. F. Von Hippel, 49Ц53. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill.

Morris, R., and D. Morris. 1966. Men and Apes. New York: McGraw-Hill. Mulcahy, N. J., and J. Call. 2006. Apes save tools for future use. Science 312:1038Ц40.

Nagasawa, M., et al. 2015. Oxytocin-gaze positive loop and the co-evolution of human-dog bonds. Science 348:333Ц36.

Nagel, T. 1974. What is it like to be a bat? Philosophical Review 83:435Ц50.

Nakamura, M., W. C. McGrew, L. F. Marchant, and T. Nishida. 2000. Social scratch: Another custom in wild chimpanzees? Primates 41:237Ц48.

Neisser, U. 1967. Cognitive Psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Nielsen, R., et al. 2005. A scan for positively selected genes in the genomes of humans and chimpanzees. Plos Biology 3:976Ц85.

Nishida, T. 1983. Alpha status and agonistic alliances in wild chimpanzees. Primates 24:318Ц36.

Nishida, T., et al. 1992. Meat-sharing as a coalition strategy by an alpha male chimpanzee? In Topics of Primatology, ed. T. Nishida, 159Ц74. Tokyo: Tokyo Press.

Nishida, T., and K. Hosaka. 1996. Coalition strategies among adult male chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. In Great Ape Societies ed. W. C. McGrew, L. F. Marchant, and T. Nishida, 114Ц34. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

O'Connell, C. 2015. Elephant Don: The Politics of a Pachyderm Posse. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Ostoji?c, L., R. C. Shaw, L. G. Cheke, and N. S. Clayton. 2013. Evidence suggesting that desire-state attribution may govern food sharing in Eurasian jays. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 110: 4123Ц28.

Osvath, M. 2009. Spontaneous planning for stone throwing by a male chimpanzee. Current Biology 19: R191Ц92.

Osvath, M., and G. Martin-Ordas. 2014. The future of future-oriented cognition in non-humans: Theory and the empirical case of the great apes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 369:20130486.

Osvath, M., and H. Osvath. 2008. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and orangutan (Pongo abelii) forethought: Self-control and pre-experience in the face of future tool use. Animal Cognition 11:661Ц74.

Ottoni, E. B., and M. Mannu. 2001. Semifree-ranging tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) spontaneously use tools to crack open nuts. International Journal of Primatology 22:347Ц58.

Overduin-de Vries, A. M., B. M. Spruijt, and E. H. M. Sterck. 2013. Long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) understand what conspecifics can see in a competitive situation. Animal Cognition 17:77Ц84.

Parr, L., and F. B. M. de Waal. 1999. Visual kin recognition in chimpanzees. Nature 399:647Ц48.

Parvizi, J. 2009. Corticocentric myopia: Old bias in new cognitive sciences. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13:354Ц59.

Paxton, R., et al. 2010. Rhesus monkeys rapidly learn to select dominant individuals in videos of artificial social interactions between unfamiliar conspecifics. Journal of Comparative Psychology 124:395Ц401.

Pearce, J. M. 2008. Animal Learning and Cognition: An Introduction, 3rd ed. East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press.

Penn, D. C., and D. J. Povinelli. 2007. On the lack of evidence that non-human animals possess anything remotely resembling a "theory of mind." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 362:731Ц44.

Pepperberg, I. M. 1999. The Alex Studies: Cognitive and Communicative Abilities of Grey Parrots. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Ц. 2008. Alex and Me. New York: Collins.

Ц. 2012. Further evidence for addition and numerical competence by a grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus). Animal Cognition 15:711Ц17.

Perdue, B. M., R. J. Snyder, Z. Zhihe, M. J. Marr, and T. L. Maple. 2011. Sex differences in spatial ability: A test of the range size hypothesis in the order Carnivora. Biology Letters 7:380Ц83.

Perry, S. 2008. Manipulative Monkeys: The Capuchins of Lomas Barbudal. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Ц. 2009. Conformism in the food processing techniques of white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus). Animal Cognition 12:705Ц16.

Perry, S., H. Clark Barrett, and J. H. Manson. 2004. White-faced capuchin monkeys show triadic awareness in their choice of allies. Animal Behaviour 67:165Ц70.

Pfenning, A. R., et al. 2014. Convergent transcriptional specializations in the brains of humans and song-learning birds. Science 346:1256846.

Pfungst, O. 1911. Clever Hans (The Horse of Mr. von Osten): A Contribution to Experimental Animal and Human Psychology. New York: Henry Holt.

Plotnik, J. M., et al. 2014. Thinking with their trunks: Elephants use smell but not sound to locate food and exclude nonrewarding alternatives. Animal Behaviour 88:91Ц98.

Plotnik, J. M., F. B. M. de Waal, and D. Reiss. 2006. Self-recognition in an Asian elephant. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103: 17053Ц57.

Plotnik, J. M., R. C. Lair, W. Suphachoksakun, and F. B. M. de Waal. 2011. Elephants know when they need a helping trunk in a cooperative task. Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences USA 108:516Ц21.

Pokorny, J., and F. B. M. de Waal. 2009. Monkeys recognize the faces of group mates in photographs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106:21539Ц43.

Pollick, A. S., and F. B. M. de Waal. 2007. Ape gestures and language evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104:8184Ц89.

Povinelli, D. J. 1987. Monkeys, apes, mirrors and minds: The evolution of self-awareness in primates. Human Evolution 2:493Ц509.

Ц. 1989. Failure to find self-recognition in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in contrast to their use of mirror cues to discover hidden food. Journal of Comparative Psychology 103:122Ц31.

Ц. 1998. Can animals empathize? Scientific American Presents: Exploring Intelligence 67:72Ц75.

Ц. 2000. Folk Physics for Apes: The Chimpanzee's Theory of How the World Works. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Povinelli, D. J., et al. 1997. Chimpanzees recognize themselves in mirrors. Animal Behaviour 53:1083Ц88.

Premack, D. 2007. Human and animal cognition: Continuity and discontinuity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104:13861Ц67.

Ц. 2010. Why humans are unique: Three theories. Perspectives on Psychological Science 5:22Ц32.

Premack, D., and A. J. Premack. 1994. Levels of causal understanding in chimpanzees and children. Cognition 50: 347Ц62.

Premack, D., and G. Woodruff. 1978. Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4:515Ц26.

Preston, S. D. 2013. The origins of altruism in offspring care. Psychological Bulletin 139:1305Ц41.

Price, T. 2013. Vocal Communication within the Genus Chlorocebus: Insights into Mechanisms of Call Production and Call Perception. Unpublished thesis, Univerity of G?ttingen, Germany.

Prior, H., A. Schwarz, and O. G?nt?rk?n. 2008. Mirror-induced behavior in the magpie (Pica pica): Evidence of self-recognition. Plos Biology 6: e202. Proctor, D., R. A. Williamson, F. B. M. de Waal, and S. F. Brosnan. 2013. Chimpanzees play the ultimatum game. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 110: 2070Ц75.

Proust, M. 1913Ц27. Remembrance of Things Past, vol. 1, Swann's Way and Within a Budding Grove. New York: Vintage Press.

Pruetz, J. D., and P. Bertolani. 2007. Savanna chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus, hunt with tools. Current Biology 17:412Ц17.

Raby, C. R., D. M. Alexis, A. Dickinson, and N. S. Clayton. 2007. Planning for the future by western scrub-jays. Nature 445:919Ц21.

Rajala, A. Z., K. R. Reininger, K. M. Lancaster, and L. C. Populin. 2010. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) do recognize themselves in the mirror: Implications for the evolution of self-recognition. Plos ONE 5: e12865.

Range, F., L. Horn, Z. Viranyi, and L. Huber. 2008. The absence of reward induces inequity aversion in dogs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106:340Ц45.

Range, F., and Z. Vir?nyi. 2014. Wolves are better imitators of conspecifics than dogs. Plos ONE 9: e86559.

Reiss, D., and L. Marino. 2001. Mirror self-recognition in the bottlenose dolphin: A case of cognitive convergence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98:5937Ц42.

Roberts, A. I., S.-J. Vick, S. G. B. Roberts, and C. R. Menzel. 2014. Chimpanzees modify intentional gestures to coordinate a search for hidden food. Nature Communications 5:3088.

Roberts, W. A. 2012. Evidence for future cognition in animals. Learning and Motivation 43:169Ц80.

Rochat, P. 2003. Five levels of self-awareness as they unfold early in life. Consciousness and Cognition 12:717Ц31.

R?ell, R. 1996. De Wereld van Instinct: Niko Tinbergen en het Ontstaan van de Ethologie in Nederland (1920Ц1950). Rotterdam: Erasmus.

Romanes, G. J. 1882. Animal Intelligence. London: Kegan, Paul, and Trench.

Ц. 1884. Mental Evolution in Animals. New York: Appleton.

Sacks, O. 1985. The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat. London: Picador. Saito, A., and K. Shinozuka. 2013. Vocal recognition of owners by domestic cats (Felis catus). Animal Cognition 16:685Ц90.

Sanz, C. M., C. Sch?ning, and D. B. Morgan. 2010. Chimpanzees prey on army ants with specialized tool set. American Journal of Primatology 72: 17Ц24.

Sapolsky, R. 2010. Language. May 21, http://bit.ly / 1BUEv9L.

Satel, S., and S. O. Lilienfeld. 2013. Brain Washed: The Seductive Appeal of Mindless Neuroscience. New York: Basic Books.

Savage-Rumbaugh, S., and R. Lewin. 1994. Kanzi: The Ape at the Brink of the Human Mind. New York: Wiley.

Sayigh, L. S., et al. 1999. Individual recognition in wild bottlenose dolphins: A field test using playback experiments. Animal Behaviour 57:41Ц50.

Schel, M. A., et al. 2013. Chimpanzee alarm call production meets key criteria for intentionality. Plos ONE 8: e76674.

Schusterman, R. J., C. Reichmuth Kastak, and D. Kastak. 2003. Equivalence classification as an approach to social knowledge: From sea lions to simians. In Animal Social Complexity, ed. F. B. M. de Waal and P. L. Tyack, 179Ц206. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Semendeferi, K., A. Lu, N. Schenker, and H. Damasio. 2002. Humans and great apes share a large frontal cortex. Nature Neuroscience 5:272Ц76.

Sheehan, M. J., and E. A. Tibbetts. 2011. Specialized face learning is associated with individual recognition in paper wasps. Science 334:1272Ц75.

Shettleworth, S. J. 1993. Varieties of learning and memory in animals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 19:5Ц14.

Ц. 2007. Planning for breakfast. Nature 445:825Ц26.

Ц. 2010. Q&A. Current Biology 20: R910Ц11.

Ц. 2012. Fundamentals of Comparative Cognition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Siebenaler, J. B., and D. K. Caldwell. 1956. Cooperation among adult dolphins. Journal of Mammalogy 37:126Ц28.

Silberberg, A., and D. Kearns. 2009. Memory for the order of brief ly presented numerals in humans as a function of practice. Animal Cognition 12:405Ц7.

Skinner, B. F. 1938. The Behavior of Organisms. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Ц. 1956. A case history of the scientific method. American Psychologist 11:221Ц33.

Ц. 1969. Contingencies of Reinforcement. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Slocombe, K., and K. Zuberb?hler. 2007. Chimpanzees modify recruitment screams as a function of audience composition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104:17228Ц33.

Smith, A. 1976 [orig. 1759]. A Theory of Moral Sentiments, ed. D. D. Raphael and A. L. Macfie. Oxford: Clarendon.

Smith, J. D., et al. 1995. The uncertain response in the bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 124:391Ц408.

Sober, E. 1998. Morgan's canon. In The Evolution of Mind, ed. D. D. Cummins and Colin Allen, 224Ц42. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Soltis, J., et al. 2014. African elephant alarm calls distinguish between threats from humans and bees. Plos ONE 9: e89403.

Sorge, R. E., et al. 2014. Olfactory exposure to males, including men, causes stress and related analgesia in rodents. Nature Methods 11:629Ц32.

Spocter, M. A., et al. 2010. Wernicke's area homologue in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and its relation to the appearance of modern human language. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 277:2165Ц74.

St. Amant, R., and T. E. Horton. 2008. Revisiting the definition of animal tool use. Animal Behaviour 75:1199Ц208.

Stenger, V. J. 1999. The anthropic coincidences: A natural explanation. Skeptical Intelligencer 3:2Ц17.

Stix, G. 2014. The "it" factor. Scientific American, Sept., pp. 72Ц79.

Suchak, M., and F. B. M. de Waal. 2012. Monkeys benefit from reciprocity without the cognitive burden. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 109:15191Ц96.

Suchak, M., T. M. Eppley, M. W. Campbell, and F. B. M. de Waal. 2014. Ape duos and trios: Spontaneous cooperation with free partner choice in chimpanzees. PeerJ 2: e417.

Suddendorf, T. 2013. The Gap: The Science of What Separates Us from Other Animals. New York: Basic Books.

Suzuki, T. N. 2014. Communication about predator type by a bird using discrete, graded and combinatorial variation in alarm call. Animal Behaviour 87:59Ц65.

Tan, J., and B. Hare. 2013. Bonobos share with strangers. Plos ONE 8: e51922. Taylor, A. H., et al. 2014. Of babies and birds: Complex tool behaviours are not sufficient for the evolution of the ability to create a novel causal intervention. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281:20140837.

Taylor, A. H., and R. D. Gray. 2009. Animal cognition: Aesop's fable f lies from fiction to fact. Current Biology 19: R731Ц32.

Taylor, A. H., G. R. Hunt, J. C. Holzhaider, and R. D. Gray. 2007. Spontaneous metatool use by New Caledonian crows. Current Biology 17:1504Ц7.

Taylor, J. 2009. Not a Chimp: The Hunt to Find the Genes That Make Us Human. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Terrace, H. S., L. A. Petitto, R. J. Sanders, and T. G. Bever. 1979. Can an ape create a sentence? Science 206:891Ц902.

Thomas, R. K. 1998. Lloyd Morgan's Canon. In Comparative Psychology: A Handbook, ed. G. Greenberg and M. M. Haraway, 156Ц63. New York: Garland.

Thompson, J. A. M. 2002. Bonobos of the Lukuru Wildlife Research Project. In Behavioural Diversity in Chimpanzees and Bonobos, ed. C. Boesch, G. Hohmann, and L. Marchant, 61Ц70. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Thompson, R. K. R., and C. L. Contie. 1994. Further ref lections on mirror usage by pigeons: Lessons from Winnie-the-Pooh and Pinocchio too. In Self-Awareness in Animals and Humans, ed. S. T. Parker et al., 392Ц409. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Thorndike, E. L. 1898. Animal intelligence: An experimental study of the associate processes in animals. Psychological Reviews, Monograph Supplement 2.

Thorpe, W. H. 1979. The Origins and Rise of Ethology: The Science of the Natural Behaviour of Animals. London: Heineman.

Tinbergen, N. 1953. The Herring Gull's World. London: Collins.

Ц. 1963. On aims and methods of ethology. Zeitschrift f?r Tierpsychologie 20: 410Ц40.

Tinbergen, N., and W. Kruyt. 1938. ?ber die Orientierung des Bienenwolfes (Philanthus triangulum Fabr.). III. Die Bevorzugung bestimmter Wegmarken. Zeitschrift f?r Vergleichende Physiologie 25:292Ц334.

Tinklepaugh, O. L. 1928. An experimental study of representative factors in monkeys. Journal of Comparative Psychology 8:197Ц236.

Toda, K., and S. Watanabe. 2008. Discrimination of moving video images of self by pigeons (Columba livia). Animal Cognition 11:699Ц705.

Tolman, E. C. 1927. A behaviorist's definition of consciousness. Psychological Review 34:433Ц39.

Tomasello, M. 2014. A Natural History of Human Thinking. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Ц. 2008. Origins of human cooperation. Tanner Lecture, Stanford University, Oct. 29Ц31.

Tomasello, M., and J. Call. 1997. Primate Cognition. New York: Oxford University Press.

Tomasello, M., A. C. Kruger, and H. H. Ratner. 1993. Cultural learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16:495Ц552.

Tomasello, M., E. S. Savage-Rumbaugh, and A. C. Kruger. 1993. Imitative learning of actions on objects by children, chimpanzees, and enculturated chimpanzees. Child Development 64:1688Ц705.

Tramontin, A. D., and E. A. Brenowitz. 2000. Seasonal plasticity in the adult brain. Trends in Neurosciences 23:251Ц58.

Troscianko, J., et al. 2012. Extreme binocular vision and a straight bill facilitate tool use in New Caledonian crows. Nature Communications 3:1110.

Tsao, D., S. Moeller, and W. A. Freiwald. 2008. Comparing face patch systems in macaques and humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105:19514Ц19.

Tulving, E. 2005. Episodic memory and autonoesis: Uniquely human? In The Missing Link in Cognition, ed. H. Terrace and J. Metcalfe, 3Ц56. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ц. 1972. Episodic and semantic memory. In Organization of Memory, ed. E. Tulving and W. Donaldson, 381Ц403. New York: Academic Press.

Ц. 2001. Origin of autonoesis in episodic memory. In The Nature of Remembering: Essays in Honor of Robert G. Crowder, ed. H. L. Roediger et al., 17Ц34. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Uchino, E., and S. Watanabe. 2014. Self-recognition in pigeons revisited. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 102:327Ц34.

Udell, M. A. R., N. R. Dorey, and C. D. L. Wynne. 2008. Wolves outperform dogs in following human social cues. Animal Behaviour 76:1767Ц73.

Ц. 2010. What did domestication do to dogs? A new account of dogs' sensitivity to human actions. Biological Review 85:327Ц45.

Uexk?ll, J. von. 1909. Umwelt und Innenwelt der Tiere. Berlin: Springer.

Ц. 1957 [orig. 1934]. A stroll through the worlds of animals and men. A picture book of invisible worlds. In Instinctive Behavior, ed. C. Schiller, 5Ц80. London Methuen.

Vail, A. L., A. Manica, and R. Bshary. 2014. Fish choose appropriately when and with whom to collaborate. Current Biology 24: R791Ц93.

van de Waal, E., C. Borgeaud, and A. Whiten. 2013. Potent social learning and conformity shape a wild primate's foraging decisions. Science 340:483Ц85.

van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. 1972. A comparative approach to the phylogeny of laughter and smiling. In Non-Verbal Communication, ed. R. A. Hinde, 209†Ц 41. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

van Leeuwen, E. J. C., K. A. Cronin, and D. B. M. Haun. 2014. A group-specific arbitrary tradition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Animal Cognition 17:1421Ц25.

van Leeuwen, E. J. C., and D. B. M. Haun. 2013. Conformity in nonhuman primates: Fad or fact? Evolution and Human Behavior 34:1Ц7.

van Schaik, C. P., L. Damerius, and K. Isler. 2013. Wild orangutan males plan and communicate their travel direction one day in advance. Plos ONE 8: e74896.

van Schaik, C. P., R. O. Deaner, and M. Y. Merrill. 1999. The conditions for tool use in primates: Implications for the evolution of material culture. Journal of Human Evolution 36:719Ц41.

Varki, A., and D. Brower. 2013. Denial: Self-Deception, False Beliefs, and the Origins of the Human Mind. New York: Twelve.

Vasconcelos, M., K. Hollis, E. Nowbahari, and A. Kacelnik. 2012. Pro-sociality without empathy. Biology Letters 8:910Ц12.

Vauclair, J. 1996. Animal Cognition: An Introduction to Modern Comparative Psychology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Visalberghi, E., and L. Limongelli. 1994. Lack of comprehension of cause-effect relations in tool-using capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Journal of Comparative Psychology 108:15Ц22.

Visser, I. N., et al. 2008. Antarctic peninsula killer whales (Orcinus orca) hunt seals and a penguin on f loating ice. Marine Mammal Science 24:225Ц34.

Wade, N. 2014. A Troublesome Inheritance: Genes, Race and Human History. New York: Penguin.

Wallace, A. R. 1869. Sir Charles Lyell on geological climates and the origin of species. Quarterly Review 126:359Ц94.

Wascher, C. A. F., and T. Bugnyar. 2013. Behavioral responses to inequity in reward distribution and working effort in crows and ravens. Plos ONE 8: e56885.

Wasserman, E. A. 1993. Comparative cognition: Beginning the second century of the study of animal intelligence. Psychological Bulletin 113:211Ц28.

Watanabe, A., U. Grodzinski, and N. S. Clayton. 2014. Western scrub-jays allocate longer observation time to more valuable information. Animal Cognition 17:859Ц67.

Watson, S. K., et al. 2015. Vocal learning in the functionally referential food grunts of chimpanzees. Current Biology 25:1Ц5.

Weir, A. A., J. Chappell, and A. Kacelnik. 2002. Shaping of hooks in New Caledonian crows. Science 297:981Ц81

Wellman, H. M., A. T. Phillips, and T. Rodriguez. 2000. Young children's understanding of perception, desire, and emotion. Child Development 71: 895Ц912.

Wheeler, B. C., and J. Fischer. 2012. Functionally referential signals: A promising paradigm whose time has passed. Evolutionary Anthropology 21:195Ц205.

White, L. A. 1959. The Evolution of Culture. New York: McGraw-Hill. Whitehead, H., and L. Rendell. 2015. The Cultural Lives of Whales and Dolphins. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Whiten, A., V. Horner, and F. B. M. de Waal. 2005. Conformity to cultural norms of tool use in chimpanzees. Nature 437:737Ц40.

Wikenheiser, A., and A. D. Redish. 2012. Hippocampal sequences link past, present, and future. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16:361Ц62.

Wilcox, S., and R. R. Jackson. 2002. Jumping spider tricksters: Deceit, predation, and cognition. In the Cognitive Animal: Empirical and Theoretical Perspectives on Animal Cognition, ed. M. Bekoff, C. Allen, and G. Burghardt, 27Ц33. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Wilfried, E. E. G., and J. Yamagiwa. 2014. Use of tool sets by chimpanzees for multiple purposes in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon. Primates 55:467Ц42.

Wilson, E. O. 1975. Sociobiology: The New Synthesis. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.

Ц. 2010. Anthill: A Novel. New York: Norton.

Wilson, M. L., et al. 2014. Lethal aggression in Pan is better explained by adaptive strategies than human impacts. Nature 513:414Ц17.

Wittgenstein, L. 1958 [orig. 1953]. Philosophical Investigations, 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell.

Wohlgemuth, S., I. Adam, and C. Scharff. 2014. FOXP2 in songbirds. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 28:86Ц93.

Wynne, C. D., and M. A. R. Udell. 2013. Animal Cognition: Evolution, Behavior and Cognition. 2nd. ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Yamakoshi, G. 1998. Dietary responses to fruit scarcity of wild chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea: Possible implications for ecological importance of tool use. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 106:283Ц95.

Yamamoto, S., T. Humle and M. Tanaka. 2009. Chimpanzees help each other upon request. Plos One 4: e7416.

Yerkes, R. M. 1925. Almost Human. New York: Century.

Ц. 1943. Chimpanzees: A Laboratory Colony. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Zahn-Waxler, C., M. Radke-Yarrow, E. Wagner, and M. Chapman. 1992. Development of concern for others. Developmental Psychology 28:126Ц36. Zylinski, S. 2015. Fun and play in invertebrates. Current Biology 25: R10Ц12.

<<< Ќазад
¬перед >>>

√енераци€: 1.031. «апросов   Ѕƒ/Cache: 0 / 0
¬верх ¬низ