: Phantoms in the Brain

Index

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Index

Page numbers in italics refer to illustrations.

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), 215

acupuncture, 51

Adamec, R.E., 285n

Adler, Ralph, 220

Aglioti, Salvatore A., 37, 8283, 268n

akinetic mutism, 252, 253, 298n

alcoholism, 15, 134, 149

Alkon, Dan, 265n

Alley, T.R., 289n

Allman, John, 272n

Altschuler, Eric, 277n, 278n, 295n, 296n

amnesia, 160

Capgras syndrome compared with, 169170

H.M. case and, xiii, 15, 148, 149, 265n

amputation stump, shortening of, vii, 3233

amygdala, 16, 162, 163, 166, 167168, 177,178, 182, 185, 186, 228

consciousness and, 244245, 247, 252

Anderson, Willy, 199200, 201, 202, 208, 288n

angular gyrus, 19, 195196

Anna O., 294n

anomalies, 222224

anorexia nervosa, 149, 155156

anosognosia, vii, 2, 127157, 249, 278n283n

asymmetry of, 132

experiments with, 137141

Freudian view of, 131132, 133

hemispheric specialization and, 134136, 279n280n

ice water in the ear stimulation and, 144148

neurological view of, 131, 132, 139142

temporary remission of, 144146, 148

of Wernickes aphasics, 280n

Anstis, Stuart, 290n

anterior thalmic nuclei, 178

Anthropologist on Mars, An (Sacks), 73

antibiotics, 214

Antons syndrome, 280n

anxiety, 13, 207

apes, 195, 197

appendix, phantom, 2425

argus pheasant, tail feathers of, 68, 70

Aristotle, 24, 266n

Armel, Kathleen, 286n, 297n, 298n

arms, 14, 26

denial of paralysis in, 2, 127132, 139142, 149155

of monkeys, 2728

paralysis of, 4344, 47

phantom, vii, 1, 2124, 2830, 30, 34, 4042, 4550, 270n

prosthetic, 41, 270n

swinging of, 4142

see also fingers; hands

art, 189, 192, 193, 194, 196, 197, 287n288n

arthritic pain, 51

Arthur case, 2, 34, 158173

auditory recognition in, 160, 168

duplication in, 172

galvanic skin response in, 164165

visual categories problem in, 170171

asthma, 219220

Astonishing Hypothesis, The (Crick), xii

attention, 116117, 120

attention shift idea, 286n, 287n

auditory cortex, 14, 168

auditory nerve, 37

auditory nucleus, 3738

Austen, Jane, 152

autistic children, 195, 286n, 292n

autonomic nervous system, 163164, 163,177, 219, 247

Avery, Oswald, 263n

axon terminals, 8

Baars, B., 296n

Babinski, Joseph Fran?ois, vii, 128

bacteria, as cause of ulcers, xv, xvi Balints syndrome, 80

Barglow, P., 294n

Barkow, J.H., 288n

Barlow, Horace, 264n

basal ganglia, 10, 13, 14, 16

Baywatch (TV program), 11

Bear, D.M., 248, 285n

Beard, A.W., 285n

bee waggle dance, 243244

behaviorism, 229, 264n

belief system, 140, 142, 155156, 279n

experiment on, 151152

left hemisphere and, 134136, 141, 147,282n

Benson, F., 269n

Bhagavad Gita, 127

bicycle wheel experiment, 9495, 97

Bill (denial patient), 142143, 281n

binding problem, 8081

binocular vision, 8990

biological variability, 215

Birnbaum, M.H., 296n

Bisiach, Edoardo, 144, 276n277n

black box approach, 263n264n

Blakemore, Colin, xii

blindness, 6365, 71

in Charles Bonnet syndrome, 8788, 104112, 274n275n

color, 7273, 230

motion, 72, 81, 272n

of Thurber, 8587

blindsight, xvi, 2, 7576, 118, 272n

blind spots, 70, 71, 8996, 235237, 236,272n274n

artificial, 273n274n

in bicycle wheel experiment, 9495, 97

in corner-of-a-square experiment, 94, 96

decapitation and, 91, 94

demonstration of, 89, 90

filling in, ix, 8996, 90, 104, 236237,236, 242243, 273n, 297n

swastika pattern and, 94, 95

vertical black line run through, 91, 92

Block, N., 296n

Bloom, Floyd, 31

boasting, 255, 279n

body image, xi, 3, 253, 282n, 283n

anorexia and, 149, 155156

cars and, 6061, 136137

coining of phrase, 44

malleability of, 5862, 247

mirror in altering of, 49

nature vs. nurture and, 22, 2731, 4142, 5658, 267n

parietal lobe and, 44, 45, 46, 4950, 142, 156, 246, 247

reorganization of, vii-viii, 22

self and, 6162, 247, 250

body parts, denial of ownership of, see somatoparaphrenia

Bogen, J.E., 279n, 280n, 298n

Bonnet, Charles, 104

see also Charles Bonnet syndrome Borsook, David, 35, 268n

brain, human:

black box approach to, 263n264n

as computer, 56, 277n

discrepancy in sensory inputs and, 141, 142

hippocampus, 15, 16, 17, 148, 163, 178, 265n

judgments of, 6768

modularist vs. holistic view of, 1011

motor system of, 4445, 5354

phantom limbs and, vii-viii, 22, 2540,4546, 5458

redundancy within, 34

size of, 191, 196197, 265n, 293n294n

split, xiii, 10, 280n

structure of, 710, 8, 9, 16

symbolic description in, 6667

unified theory of, 4, 5

see also cerebral cortex; frontal lobes; left hemisphere; right hemisphere; temporal lobes; specific topics

Brain, Lord Russell, 44

Brain, Mind and Behavior (Bloom and Laserson), 16, 178

brain, monkey, 2728, 30, 7778, 267n

brain damage, 1219, 31, 196

vision and, 6465, 72, 73, 75

see also stroke

brain mapping, brain maps, 3940, 266n267n

Penfield homunculus and, 2527, 26, 29,31, 32, 37, 39, 44, 50, 267n, 268n, 298n

vision and, 70, 71

brain remapping, 2731, 32, 3340, 45, 56, 268n269n

abnormal, 5051

in monkeys, 2728, 29, 33

savants and, 196

vision and, 274n

brain stem, 14, 17, 37, 116, 178, 234

superior colliculus in, 73, 74

brain tumor, denial of, 142143

breast cancer, 214

breasts, phantom, 24, 37

Breiter, Hans, 268n

Brewster, Sir David, 273n

Broca, Pierre Paul, 177

Brown, E., 294n

Brown, Richard, 295n

Brown-Sequard, Charles, 279n

Bruens, J.H., 285n

Bucy, Paul, 78

Buergers disease, 51

Burgess shale creatures, 292n

Caccace, A.T., 37

California, University of, Medical Center of, 127129

Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 23

cancer, 7, 214215, 218

Capgras syndrome, ix, xvi, 2, 34, 158173,248, 284n

amnesia compared with, 169170

auditory recognition and, 160, 168

Cotards syndrome as exaggerated form of, 167

Freudian view of, 161162

galvanic skin response and, 164165

gaze direction and, 168169

memory and, 169172

self and, 171173

caricature, 287n288n

Carroll, Lewis, 124, 158, 277n

cars:

body image and, 6061, 136137

in rearview mirrors, 120

cartoons, 2, 72, 108109, 111

of Thurber, 86, 86, 87

cataracts, 87, 104105

catastrophic reaction, 129, 149

cats, seeing vs. imagining of, 88, 109110

Cecilia (denial patient), 130

cell body, 8

central (rolandic) sulcus, 9

cerebellum, 9, 9, 16, 45, 178

cerebral cortex, 9, 10, 13, 16, 116, 178, 264n

lying and, 278n

Penfield homunculus and, 2527, 26

cervix, cancer of, 218

Chafe, Wallace, 291n

Chalmers, D., 294n

Charcot, Jean Martin, 295n

Charles Bonnet syndrome, 8788, 104112, 274n275n

Charles II, king of England, 91, 103

Chemical History of a Candle (Faraday), ix, xi chess playing, 250

child abuse, 225

children, 279n

autistic, 195, 286n, 292n

in Charles Bonnet hallucinations, 105106

phantom limbs in, 57, 269n, 270n

Chopra, Deepak, 221, 249

Chudamani, Viveka, 39

Churchland, Patricia, 175, 275n, 296n

Churchland, P.M., 296n

cingulate cortex, 163, 178

cingulate gyrus, 201, 208, 228, 249, 252

Civil War, U.S., vii, 23

Clark, Astley, 200

Clark, Stephanie, 268n

Cobb, S., 269n

cognitive neuropsychiatry, 3

cognitive science, 272n

coherence and continuity, 133, 134135,147, 280n, 282n

cold, 3334, 50

color blindness, 7273, 230

color vision, 11, 64, 7273, 7980, 81, 102, 110, 111, 185, 230, 264n, 272n, 278n

computer model of brain, 56, 277n

conceptual filling in, 103104, 110

conceptual self, 253254

confabulation, 154, 155, 254, 283n

connectionism, 10

consciousness, 76, 77, 103, 137, 156, 227257, 296n298n

as epiphenomenon, 235

selective function of, 116117, 276n

see also qualia; self continental drift, 223

contingency, evolution and, 209, 292n

contradictory evidence, visual system and, 91, 93, 93

convergent evolution, 292n

Cooper, Larry, 139140

Copernican revolution, xiv, 156

cordotomy, 33

corneal damage, 105

corner-of-a-square experiment, 94, 96, 102103

corpus callosum, 9, 10, 12, 16, 163, 178,280n

stroke in, 1213

Cosmides, L., 288n

cosmology, xiv, 156, 157

Cotards syndrome, 167, 248

courtship ritual, of birds, 68, 70

couvade syndrome (sympathetic pregnancy), 218

creativity, 7, 197198

humor and, 206, 291n

of Thurber, 8587, 86, 112

Crick, Francis, xii, 175, 186, 199, 229, 234, 263n, 271n, 285n

Critchley, M., 276n, 278n

Cro-Magnon, 190, 191

Cronholm, B., 267n

Cutting, J., 278n

cyclophosphamide, 220

Cytowic, Richard, 297n

Daly, M., 288n

Damasio, A., 278n, 284n

Damasio, Hanna, 274n, 284n

Darwin, Charles, ix, xi, xvi, 68, 70, 133, 189191, 211, 224, 227, 240, 286n, 291n

Darwinian revolution, 156

Darwinism (Wallace), 189

Davies, Paul, xii, 256257

Davy, Humphry, ix, xi Dawkins, Richard, xii, 197, 286n

D.B. (Drew), 7577, 81

death:

Cotards syndrome and, 167

laughter and, 199200, 207

decapitation:

blind spot and, 91, 94

Capgras syndrome and, 166

scotoma and, 103

defense mechanism(s), viii-ix, 130133, 136,152156, 280n281n

humor as, 154, 207

in normal people, 131135

rationale behind, 134135

rationalizations as, 152, 154, 155, 156

reaction formation as, 139, 153154, 155

repression as, 135, 143144, 146, 148,149, 153, 155, 161, 282n

selection of, 155

Dehaene, S., 265n

de Kruif, Paul, xii dendrites, 8

denial, 50, 127153, 155157, 253254, 278n283n

depth of, 143, 281n282n

global, 142

location of brain lesions and, 142143

memory and, 148150, 283n

mock injections and, 151152, 283n

neglect syndrome and, 133, 139141, 144

normal vs. exaggerated, 131132

Dennett, Dan, xii, 80, 254, 272n, 286n, 296n, 297n

depression, 3, 13, 182, 217, 280n281n

depth, 110, 111

Descent of Man, The (Darwin), 70, 211

Deutsch, Anthony, 289n

Deutsch, G., 280n

Devils Advocate, 135136

Dewhurst, K., 285n

DeYoe, Ted, 272n

diabetes, 285n

diabetic retinopathy, 87, 105

dichotomania, 279n

Dickens, Charles, viii digestive system, 264n

disease, sensory identification of, 67

Disraeli, Benjamin, 211

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), 81, 234, 246, 263n, 264n, 272n, 294n

Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (Stevenson), 224

Dodds, Mrs., 127129, 132, 136, 138139, 154

Dolan, Ray, 141142, 280n

dorsal rhizotomy, 2728, 33

dreams, 3, 147, 195

REM sleep and, 147148, 282n

dyscalculias, 1719, 265n, 277n

dyslexia, temporary, 101

ears, 3738

hallucinations and, 105, 106

nystagmus and, 144146

Eddington, Sir Thomas, 222223

Edelman, Gerald M., 109, 278n

Edward, B., 286n

eggs and cavities images, 68, 69, 70, 271n

ego, defense of, 130, 135

Einstein, Albert, 4, 115, 174, 195, 235

Ekman, P., 278n

Electra complex, 161

electricity, magnetism and, 45

Ellen (neglect syndrome patient), 113117, 120125

Ellis, Havelock, 289n

Ellis, H.D., 284n

embodied self, 247, 250

emotion, 116, 117, 282n

appropriate, 115, 166

Capgras syndrome and, 162167, 170, 172, 284n

eye contact and, 168

limbic system and, 13, 16, 17, 116, 162164, 163, 167, 171, 177, 182183, 185, 247, 248249

right hemisphere and, 133134, 280n

self and, 247249

temporal lobe epilepsy and, 180, 182, 187

empathy, 61, 218, 250

epilepsy, 15

grand mal seizure of, 179

temporal lobe, see temporal lobe epilepsy

epistemology, experimental, 3, 151152

erections:

of gay bashers, 153

health and, 197

phantom, 25, 37

Esmerelda (denial patient), 130

estrogen, 294n

evolution, 156, 157, 224

contingency and, 209, 292n

convergent, 292n

Lamarckian, 190

natural selection in, 175, 183, 184, 189191, 196, 201, 209211, 235, 286n, 288n, 292n293n

perception and, 68, 70, 76, 103, 271n

of self-deception, 278n279n

evolutionary psychology (sociobiology), 183184, 201202, 288n291n

executive self, 249250

experimental method, Galilean, 24, 266n

eye movement, 38, 144, 145, 271n

rapid (REM), 147148, 282n

eyes, 6, 73, 74, 168

retina of, 70, 71, 74, 81, 89, 115, 274n, 275n

face, 33

brain mapping and, 2631, 26, 30, 32, 34, 40, 267n268n

phantom, 25

face cells, 7778

face recognition, 10, 64, 7778, 169

Capgras syndrome and, 162167, 172, 284n

Fregoli syndrome and, 171

prosopagnosia and, 162, 284n

false alarm theory, 206, 207

Faraday, Michael, ix, xi, 45, 263n

Farah, Martha, 266n, 278n, 284n

feces, disgust for, 202

Fedio, Paul, 248, 285n

feet:

brain mapping and, 26, 26, 27, 35, 36, 266n267n

phantom, 3536, 57, 270n

sexuality and, 3, 3537

Feinberg, T., 278n

Fermat, Pierre de, 188

Feynman, Richard, 120

filling-in phenomenon, 8896, 90, 273n274n

blind spots and, ix, 8996, 90, 104, 236237, 236, 242243, 273n, 297n

in Charles Bonnet syndrome, 110

defined, 88, 273n

perceptual vs. conceptual, 103104, 110

scotomas and, 89, 98104, 272n273n

finger agnosia, 19

fingers:

brain mapping and, 26, 26, 50

disease identification and, 67

phantom, vii, 1, 2122, 2830, 30, 41,43, 47, 4955, 111, 270n

Finkelstein, Rita, 28

fists, phantom, 5255, 111

Fletcher, Diane, 6365, 69, 7983

flower drawing, 121122, 122

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 217, 294n

foot fetishes, 26, 3637

Foster, Chris, 295n, 297n

foveal vision, 80

Fregoli syndrome, 171

Freud, Anna, 130, 153

Freud, Sigmund, viii-ix, 3, 36, 41, 135, 147, 152157, 205, 224

Capgras syndrome as viewed by, 161162

defense mechanisms and, 130133, 139, 152156

Fried, I., 291n

Frith, Chris, 141142, 280n

frontal lobes, 9, 9, 17, 116, 166, 175, 177,228, 234, 247, 264n265n, 282n, 284n

consciousness and, 244, 248

movement and, 44

ventromedial, 142143

frontal lobe syndrome, 182

Frost, P., 289n

functionalists, 264n

functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 141, 263n, 266n, 270n

funhouse, images in, 109, 274n

Fuster, J.M., 269n

Gage, Phineas, 248

Gainotti, G., 280n

Galileo, xi, xiv, 24, 266n

Galin, D., 278n, 279n, 296n

Gall, Franz, 264n265n

Gallen, Chris, 31

galvanic skin response (GSR), 61, 166, 248, 250, 270n, 279n, 282n

Capgras syndrome and, 164165

of Cotards syndrome patients, 167

temporal lobe epilepsy and, 185187, 286n

Gamow, George, ix, xii

Gandhi, Mohandas K., 174

Gardner, H., 281n

Gastaut, H., 285n

gate control (volume control), 51

gay bashers, 153

gaze direction, 168169

gaze tinnitus, 3738

Gazzaniga, M., 280n

genetic engineering, 197

genitals:

brain mapping and, 25, 26, 27, 3536, 266n

see also erections; penis genius, 185, 192198

George (denial patient), 283n

Geschwind, Norman, 265n, 285n

gestalt, 109

Gestalt psychologists, 82

gesticulation, 41, 42, 44, 140

Gibbs, F.A., 285n

giraffes, long neck of, 293n

glaucoma, 87

God, 3, 39, 175176, 179182, 184188, 191, 235, 273n

Goldberg, E., 269n

Goldberg, G., 269n

Goldman-Rakic, P.S., 269n

Goldstein, Kurt, 1213, 129

Gombrich, Ernest, 288n

Goodale, Mel, 77

Gould, Stephen Jay, ix, xii, 209, 265n, 292n

Grace (denial patient), 142

Gray, C.M., 296n

Graziano, M.S.A., 280n

Greenough, Ruth, 200, 201, 207, 208, 288n

Gregory, Richard, ix, xii, 65, 120, 190, 271n, 273n

Griffiths, Fred, 263n

Gross, C.G., 77, 280n, 284n

Haldane, J.B.S., xxi, 39, 113

Halligan, Peter, 105, 117118, 250, 276n

hallucinations, 33, 105112, 275n

auditory, 105, 106

Charles Bonnet, 8788, 105112, 274n275n

imagining and, 110112

temporal lobe epilepsy and, 176177

of Thurber, 8587, 86

Hamilton, John, 298n

Hamilton, W.D., 288n, 289n

Hamlet (Shakespeare), 139

hands, 209

brain mapping and, 26, 26, 2731, 30,32

dummy, 5960

Parkinsons disease and, 269n270n

telescoped phantom, 4243

see also fingers

Hard Times (Dickens), viii Hardy, G.H., 194

Hari, Riita, 247, 282n

Head, Henry, 44

Hebbian link, 54

Heilman, J., 276n

Helicobacter pylori, xv Helmholtz, Hermann von, 68

hemianopia, 75

hemineglect, see neglect syndrome

hemispheric specialization, xiii, 142

anosognosia and, 134136, 279n280n

see also left hemisphere; right hemisphere

heredity, see DNA; nature vs. nurture

Hermelin, B., 286n

Hildebrandt, K.A., 289n

Hill, A.L., 286n

hippocampus, 15, 16, 17, 148, 163, 178,265n

Hippocrates, 294n

Hirstein, W., 247, 270n, 284n, 286n, 296n

H.M. (amnesia patient), xiii, 15, 148, 149, 265n

Hobson, J.A., 283n

Hochberg, J.E., 271n

holism, 1011, 80

Holmes, Sherlock, 1, 3, 12, 158, 212

homosexuality, latent, 153

Hooker, Joseph, 189

hormones, 177, 196, 197

false pregnancy and, 216, 217, 218, 294n

how pathway, 74, 77, 78, 79, 81, 82, 82, 83, 110, 111, 115, 283n

consciousness and, 240241, 244, 247

mirror agnosia and, 277n

How the Mind Works (Pinker), 288n

Hubei, David, 271n, 272n

Hume, David, 171, 296n

humor, 154, 188

evolution of, 203209, 286n, 291n

false alarm theory of, 206, 207

see also jokes; laughter

Humphrey, Nick, 275n, 296n

Huxley, Thomas Henry, ix, xi, 152

hyperconnectivity, 248

hypertrophy theory, 287n

hypnosis, 215, 218219, 294n295n

hypothalamus, 10, 16, 155, 156, 163, 164, 177178, 182, 201, 228

false pregnancy and, 216, 217

hypoxia, 15

ice water in the ear stimulation, 144148

ideomotor apraxia, 269n

imaging techniques, 35, 83, 284n

functional magnetic resonance (fMRI), 141, 263n266n, 270n

magnetic resonance (MR), 32, 287n

magnetoencephalography (MEG), 31,32, 263n, 270n

positron emission tomography (PET), 141,142, 263n, 285n

imagining, imagination, xv-xvi, 8788

hallucination and, 110112

seeing vs., 88, 109110

immune system, 214, 219221, 225

imposters, Capgras syndrome and, ix, 158166

India, 183, 193195, 214, 265n

leprosy in, 5758

information sequencing, 277n

Ingrid (Swiss patient), 72, 81

injections, mock, 151152, 283n

insular cortex, 156, 208, 228

intelligence, 190193, 292n

general, 192, 193, 195

kinetic, 190

phrenology and, 264n265n

potential, 190191

intralaminar thalmic nuclei, 252, 253

Iragui, Vincent, 185186, 286n

Irene (phantom limb patient), 43, 44, 46

Ironside, R., 288n

itching, 28, 38

jacksonian seizures, 179

Jacobs, B., 292n

James, William, 267n, 276n

Jean (denial patient), 150, 153154

Joan (scotoma patient), 274n

Joe (amnesia patient), 169170

Johanson, D., 286n

Johnson, Mark, 28

Johnston, M.A., 294n

jokes, 3, 1819, 147, 154, 203204, 206,207, 291n

Josh (scotoma patient), 97103, 274n

Kaas, John, 272n

Kallio, K.E., 270n

Kandel, Eric, 265n

Kant, Immanuel, 115, 203

Karen (phantom limb patient), 55

Kauffman, Stuart, 292n293n

kindling hypothesis, 182183, 185186

kinetic intelligence, 190

Kinsbourne, M., 279n, 280n

Kleffner, D.A., 271n

Kl?ver, Heinrich, 78

Kl?ver-Bucy syndrome, 7879, 248

Knight, Mary, 212217

Koch, Christof, 234

Korsakov, Sergei, 265n

Kristensen, O., 285n

Kuhn, Thomas, 136, 204, 222

Kumar, Mirabelle, 4044, 57

Lackner, J.R., 270n

La Croix, R., 270n

Lamarckian evolution, 190

Lancet, 105

language, 10, 11, 14, 19, 117, 191, 245, 295n

body, 41, 42, 44

hemispheric specialization and, 133, 283n

information sequencing and, 277n

translation barrier and, 231232

lateral (sylvian) fissure, 9

lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), 71, 73, 74

laughter, ix, 3, 11, 199209

evolution of, 201, 203209, 286n, 291n

nervous, 152, 154, 207

pathological, 199201, 207

uncontrollable, 2, 199201

Leakey, R., 286n

learned paralysis, viii, 46, 4748, 269n

learning, 19, 68, 292n

left hemisphere, xiii, 910, 1213, 32, 288n

angular gyrus of, 195196

belief system and, 134136, 141, 147, 282n

as general, 135, 147, 280n

injury in, 13, 14, 132, 280n

interpreter in, 280n

language and, 133, 283n, 295n

self-deception and, 279n

structure of, 9, 9

translation barrier and, 283n

visual pathways in, 74

legs, 26, 131

phantom, vii, 22, 24, 3536, 52

Leonardo da Vinci, 124, 194

leprosy, 5758

Lettvin, Jerome, 273n

Levi, Leah, 280n

Levine, D.N., 278n

Levinson, Lilian, 102

limbic system, 61, 156, 288n

Cotards syndrome and, 167

emotion and, 13, 16, 17, 116, 162164,163, 167, 171, 177, 182183, 185, 247, 248249

functions of, 177179, 178

laughter and, 201, 207, 208

lying and, 278n

rabies in, 177, 284n

racism and, 171

line-bisection test, 121, 276n

lines, vertical vs. horizontal, 94, 95, 273n

Lipperhey, Hans, xiv Lippincotts Journal, 23

lips, 33

brain mapping and, 25, 26, 26, 29

Little wood, J.E., 194

Livingstone, Margaret, 272n

Logotethis, Nikos, 272n

looking glass syndrome, see mirror agnosia love, 61, 250

Lullin, Charles, 104105

lung cancer, 7

luteinizing hormone (LH), 294n

lying (self-deception), 135, 254255, 278n279n

Lynch, Gary, 265n

McCarty, Maclyn, 263n

MacDonald, Larry, 106109, 110, 274n

McGlynn, S.M., 278n

McGrath, John, 4243, 45

Mach, Ernst, 115

Macken, Mrs., 144149, 155

Maclean, P., 284n

Macleod, Colin, 263n

macular degeneration, 87, 105

Madonna, 36

Magicicada septendecim, 263n

magnetic resonance (MR) image, 32, 287n

magnetism, electricity and, 45

magnetoencephalography (MEG), 31, 32,263n, 270n

Mai, N, 272n

mammillary bodies, 163, 178, 201

manic depressive illness, 182, 285n

Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat, The (Sacks), 162

Margulis, Lynn, 294n

Mariotte, Edme, 89

Marr, David, 271n, 275n

Marshall, Bill, xv, 1719, 265n

Marshall, John, 105, 117118

Martin, Purdon, 200

Martinez, Philip, 4750, 269n

Mary (phantom limb patient), 55, 270n

Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), 35, 268n

mastectomy, 24, 37

math ability, 10, 1719, 188, 190197, 265n266n, 277n, 286n

Maunsell, John, 272n

Maxwell, James Clerk, 5

Maynard Smith, J., 286n

Mazziotta, J.C., 263n

Medawar, Peter, ix, xii, xv-xvi, 81, 206, 234

medicine, xiv-xv, 67

medulla oblongata, 9, 9, 16

Melzack, Ron, 267n, 269n

memory, 10, 1517, 19, 44, 48, 238, 282n

Capgras syndrome and, 169172

in Charles Bonnet hallucinations, 110, 274n

denial and, 148150, 283n

for faces, 169

Hebbian link and, 54

hippocampus and, 15, 16, 17, 148, 169, 250, 265n

pain, 5152, 111

perception and, 112, 238241

temporal lobe epilepsy and, 181182

memory trace, formation of, 148, 149, 250

Mendeleyev, Dmitri, 222

menstrual cramps, phantom, 25

Merzenich, Mike, 266n, 267n

Mesulam, Marcel, 117

metamorphosis, delay of, 56, 263n

metaphors, 197198

Microbe Hunters, The (de Kruif), xii midbrain, 16

middle temporal (MT) area, 72, 73, 272n

migraines, transient scotomas and, 89, 97

Miller, Jonathan, 291n

Miller, Lawrence, xxi Miller, S.O., 296n

Milner, Brenda, 265n

Milner, David, 6365, 79

Milton, John, 176

mind-body interactions, 177, 212226, 294n296n

asthma and, 219220

in false pregnancy, 212218, 294n

hypnosis in, 215, 218219, 294n295n

in immune conditioning, 219221

multiple personality disorder and, 224225, 296n

placebo effect and, 221, 295n296n

resistance to idea of, 221224

mirror agnosia (looking glass syndrome), viii, 123126

mirrors, 270n

denial patients and, 140141

neglect syndrome and, 119125

phantom limbs and, viii, 4649, 5254, 269n, 270n

real objects vs. reflection in, 120, 276n

Mischkin, Mortimer, 74

Mismeasure of Man, The (Gould), 265n

Mitchell, Silas Weir, vii, 23, 214, 267n, 294n

mnemonic self, 250251

modularity, 1011, 17, 19, 5556, 80, 264n265n, 277n

Molyneux, William, 232233, 296n

monkeys, 280n

brain of, 2728, 30, 7778, 267n

monogamy, 183

Monroe, Dr., 212213, 216

morning sickness, 202, 288n289n

motion blindness, 72, 81, 272n

motion perception, 72, 102, 110, 111, 272n, 274n, 275n, 297n

motor cortex, 9, 14, 16, 44, 5354, 174,179

movement: arm, 4142

of phantom limbs, 4048

see also eye movement

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 188, 195

multiple personality disorder (MPD), 6, 146147, 224225, 251, 282n

Murray, John, xi music, 188193, 195

mystical experience, ix, 182, 184185, 285n

Nadia (autistic savant), 193, 194, 195, 197, 287n

Nadia (Selfe), 194

Nancy (Charles Bonnet patient), 108111

Nancy (denial patient), 151152, 283n

National Institutes of Health, xi, 74, 94, 296n

natural selection, 175, 183, 184, 189191,196, 209211, 235, 286n, 288n, 292n293n

Nature, 200201, 269n

nature vs. nurture, 20, 183184

body image and, 22, 2731, 4142, 5658, 267n

Neanderthals, 191

Necker, L.A., 67

Necker cube, 67, 67

neglect syndrome, xvi, 113126, 155, 266n, 276n278n

clinical importance of, 119

denial and, 133, 139141, 144

mirror agnosia and, 123126

mirrors and, 119125

recovery from, 119, 277n

subconscious awareness in, 117118

testing for, 121122, 122

Nelson, Lord Horatio, 2223, 273n

neocortex, 8

neuromas, 23, 3132, 50, 56

neurons (nerve cells), 8, 8

Newsome, William, 272n

Newton, Sir Isaac, 4, 228229

New Yorker, 86

Nielsen, H., 285n

Nietzsche, Friedrich, 199

nose, 209

phantom, 25, 270n

nose illusion, 59, 270n

nystagmus, 144146, 148

objective science, 229

object recognition, 1516, 64, 101, 110,115, 116, 275n, 283n

auditory, 160, 168

see also face recognition

objects, external, projection of sensations to, 59, 61

Occams razor, 297n

occipital lobe, 9, 9, 16

ocular change, multiple personality disorder and, 224, 296n

oculomotor nerve nucleus, 38

Oedipus complex, 161

Omar Khayy?m, 1, 188, 265n

On the Origin of Species (Darwin), 211

optic chiasm, 71

optic disk, 89

optic nerve, 70, 71, 73, 74, 89, 275n

optic radiation, 71

optic tract, 71

orgasm, 36, 111, 175, 179, 296n

orienting behavior, 73, 76, 79, 280n

positive feedback loop in, 116117, 276n

Ornstein, Robert, 279n

Ovid, 21

pain, 4956

memory of, 5152, 111

pain, phantom, vii, viii, 1, 22, 28, 3233,38, 40, 47, 4955, 111

abnormal remapping and, 5051

alleviation of, 24, 3233, 49, 50, 5255

causes of, 5051

cup experiment and, 43

pain asymbolia, 207208

palinopsia, 274n278n

Papez, James, 177, 284n

paradigm shifts, 136, 204, 205, 222223, 280n, 291n

Paradise Lost (Milton), 176

paralysis, 14

denial of, vii, 2, 127157, 278n283n

of denial patients right arm, 140141

learned, viii, 46, 4748, 269n

in monkeys, 2728

in phantom limbs, vii, viii, 4347

stroke and, 48, 119, 127128

see also anosognosia; somatoparaphrenia

Par?, Ambroise, 22

parent(s):

childs sexual attraction to, 161

as imposters, ix, 158166

as robot, 166

parietal lobe, 9, 9, 46, 49, 73, 116117

Balints syndrome and, 80

body image and, 44, 45, 46, 4950, 142,156, 246, 247

denial and, 139, 142

left, damage to, 116, 117

motor system and, 44, 45, 4950

right, detection of damage to, 125

right, stroke in, 114, 117, 142, 277n

spatial representation and, 115, 120121, 125

see also how pathway

Parkinsons disease, 7, 269n270n

parthenogenesis, 104

passionate self, 247249

Paul (temporal lobe personality), ISO- 182

Peggy Sue (MPD patient), 224225

penduncular hallucinosis, 252253

Penfield, Wilder, 2527, 26

Penfield homunculus (sensory homunculus), 2527, 26, 29, 31, 32, 37, 39, 44, 50, 267n, 268n, 298n

penis, 25, 37, 270n

see also erections

perception, 63112, 271n275n, 293n

ambiguity in, 68

comparisons vs. absolute value in, 167

eggs and cavities image and, 68, 69

fiinhouse imagery view of, 109

judgment and, 67

memory and, 112, 238241

stability in, 241242, 271n

as unconscious inference, 68

unity of, 8081

see also vision, visual system

perceptual filling in, 100104, 110

perimetry, 102

periodic table, 222

Perrett, David, 77

Persinger, Michael, 175, 184

pets, Capgras syndrome and, 161162

phantom limbs, vii-viii, xi, 1, 3, 2158, 111,266n270n

amputation of, viii, 4950

being born with, 4042, 269n

defined, vii, 22

explanations of, 23, 28, 3132

in historical perspective, vii, 2223

movement of, 4048

paralysis in, vii, viii, 4347

virtual reality device and, 4649, 5255, 141142

vision and, 43, 4649, 5455

Phelps, M.E., 263n

phrenology, 264n265n

physics, 45

Piel, Jonathan, 9596

Pinker, Steven, xii, 288n

pituitary gland, 177, 216, 294n

placebo effect, 53, 151152, 214, 221, 295n296n

Plum, F., 298n

poetry, 7, 188

polyandry, 183

polygamy, 183, 184

pons, 9, 9, 16

Pons, Tim, 25, 2730, 267n, 268n

positron emission tomography (PET), 141,142, 263n, 285n

Posner, M., 263n

potential intelligence, 190191

preadaptation, 209

preformationism, 104

pregnancy:

false (pseudocyesis), 212218, 294n

sympathetic (couvade syndrome), 218

Pribram, K., 269n

primary axon, 8

primary visual cortex, 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 76, 77, 81, 109, 110, 115, 275n

Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 269n

Profet, Margie, 288n

progesterone, 294n

projection, 154155

prolactin, 216, 217, 218, 294n

prosopagnosia, 162, 284n

pseudocyesis (false pregnancy), 212218, 294n

psychological defenses, see defense mechanism(s)

qualia (subjective sensation), 229245, 251252, 296n297n

defined, 229, 230

features of, 238242, 239

riddle of, 229231

Queen Square Neurological Hospital for Neurological Diseases, 141142

rabies, 177, 284n285n

racism, 171

Rafael, Robert, 278n

Raichle, M., 263n

Ramachandran, Mani, 83

Ramachandran, V.S., 69, 227, 239, 267n271n, 273n, 274n, 278n, 281n, 284n, 286n, 296n

Ramanujan, Srinivasa, 188, 193195

Ram?n y Cajal, Santiago, 234

rationalizations, 152, 154, 155, 156

reaction formation, 139, 153154, 155

recticular activating system, 116

reductionism, 234, 264n

redundancy, 34

religious experience, ix, 1, 3, 6, 175188, 285n

REM (rapid eye movement) sleep, 147148, 282n

repression, 135, 143144, 146, 148, 149,153, 155, 161, 282n

reverse engineering, 209210

Rickard, Tim, 266n

Ridley, M., 285n

rifle targets, 83

right hemisphere, xiii, 910, 9, 1213, 32,288n

angular gyrus of, 196

anosognosia and, 132, 141, 147, 282n

as Devils Advocate, 135136

discrepancies monitored in, 142, 280n

injury in, 7, 13, 14, 114, 117, 127128, 132, 134, 142, 144, 280n, 281n, 282n; see also neglect syndrome

language and, 133

self-deception and, 279n

translation barrier and, 283n

vision and, 133134

Rivermead Rehabilitation Center, 131

Robinson, R.G., 280n

robot, parent as, 166

Rock, I., 271n

Rodin, E., 285n

Rogers-Ramachandran, D., 269n, 270n

Rolls, E.T., 77, 239, 284n

Rub?iy?t of Omar Khayy?m, The, 1, 188

Sacks, Oliver, xii, 73, 118, 143, 162, 192,272n, 287n

Sagan, Carl, ix, xii

Sam (Ellens son), 113115, 120

Sanders, Mike, 75

San Diego Rehabilitation Center, 150

savant syndrome (idiot savant syndrome), 192197, 194, 286n287n

explanation of, 195196, 286n287n

Schacter, D.L., 278n

schizophrenia, 176, 182, 253, 285n

Schmaltz, S., 285n

Schopenhauer, Arthur, 203

Schr?dinger, Erwin, xii, 176

science:

exception vs. rule in, 56

progress in, 221222

Scientific American, 9596, 272n

scientific revolutions, common denominator of, 156157

scotoma, 71, 96104, 274n, 275n

corner-of-a-square experiment and, 102103

decapitation and, 103

migraines and, 89, 97

perimetry and, 102

Searle, John, 245, 296n

Secret Life of Walter Mitty, The (Thurber), 85

Sejnowski, Terry, 265n, 275n

self, xviii, 3, 12, 81, 8384, 227257, 296n298n

anosognosia and, 137

body image and, 6162, 247, 250

Capgras syndrome and, 171173

conceptual, 253254

executive, 249250

as illusion, 84, 227228, 247, 272n

mnemonic, 250251

passionate, 247249

social, 254

unified, 251252

vigilant, 252253

see also consciousness

self-deception, 130, 134135, 254255, 278n279n

Selfe, Lorna, 194

Sen, Sathyajit, 40

sensory cortex, viii, 9, 16

sensory homunculus, see Penfield homunculus

septum, 175, 178, 228

Sergent, Justine, 98, 273n, 274n

Sex (Madonna), 36

sexuality, sexual behavior, 10, 153, 197, 201

childrens attraction to parents and, 161

ears and, 37

feet and, 3, 3537

indiscriminate, 78, 79

temporal lobe epilepsy and, 181, 186, 187

see also erections; orgasm; penis

sexual selection, 293n

Shah, Muntaz, 149150

Shakespeare, William, 85, 111, 148, 152, 198, 241, 256, 282n

Shallice, T., 269n

shapes, vision and, 110, 111

shoelace experiment, 138139

Simmel, Mary Ann, 269n

Sinclair-Gieben, A.H.C., 294n

Singer, W., 296n

size-contrast illusion, 8283, 82

skin, sensations arising from, 3334

Slater, E., 285n

sleep, REM (rapid eye movement), 147148, 282n

smell, 67, 10, 177

smiling, 1314, 291n

grimace compared with, 207, 210211, 291n

lying and, 278n

Snyder, A., 287n

social self, 254

sociobiology, see evolutionary psychology somatoparaphrenia, vii, 2, 131, 143, 249, 278n

Sorenson, Tom, 2022, 2831, 3335, 38, 40, 50, 268n

Spanos, N.P., 294n

spatial representation, 115, 120121, 125

speculation, xv-xvi Sperry, R.W., 280n

spinal cord, 9, 9, 16, 33, 48

dorsal rhizotomy and, 27, 33

motor system and, 44, 45

split brains, xiii, 10, 280n

spontaneous activity, 275n

spontaneous remissions, 214215

sports, spatial orientation in, 83

Springer, S., 280n

sprouting, 34, 35

Squire, Larry, 265n

Starkman, M., 294n

Star Wars (movie), 83

Stenstrom, R.S., 294n

stereoscopic vision, 94, 273n

Steve (neglect syndrome patient), 118119, 120

Stevenson, Robert Louis, 224

Stoddard, Rick, 60

Stream of Thought, The (James), 276n

stroke, 2, 1213, 14

blindness and, 73, 75

neglect syndrome and, 113, 114, 119, 277n

number sense and, 1719

paralysis and, 48, 119, 127128

in right hemisphere, 114, 117, 127128, 134, 142, 144, 277n

Stroop interference, 295n

subjective sensation, see qualia suicidal tendencies, 1213, 22

sun, xiv, 68, 69n, 271n

superior colliculus, 73, 74

supplementary motor area, 44, 201, 249

Susan (denial patient), 283n

Susan (epilepsy patient), 201

Sutherland, Stuart, 228

swastika pattern, blind spot and, 94, 95

sweating, 164

see also galvanic skin response

symbolic description, 6667

Symons, Don, 288n, 290n

synapses, 8, 8

synesthesia, 297n298n

table-tapping illusion, 60, 61

tadpoles, regeneration in, 56

Taub, E., 267n

Tecoma, Evelyn, 185186, 286n

telescope, xiv

temporal lobe epilepsy, xvi, 1, 7, 248249, 285n

galvanic skin response and, 185187, 285n286n

religious experience and, 175177, 179188, 285n286n

temporal lobe personality, 180188, 285n

temporal lobes, ix, 9, 9, 74, 77, 7879, 101,228, 265n

consciousness and, 244246

object recognition and, 115, 116, 162,165, 284n

religious experience and, 175177, 179188, 286n

see also amygdala; hypothalamus; insular cortex; septum

textures, 64, 7980, 101, 102, 103, 275n

thalamus, 9, 10, 13, 16, 33, 74, 109, 163,175, 252

theory of other minds module, 296n Thiruvengadam, K.V., 67

Thomas, Dylan, 188

Thomas, Lewis, ix, xii, 127, 218

Thomas, M., 287n

Thompson, K., 296n

threat:

emotional arousal in response to, 163164

perception of, 116117

threat grimace, smile compared with, 207,210211, 291n

Through the Looking Glass (Carroll), 124, 158

Thurber, James, 8587, 86, 104, 112, 272n

tickling, ix, 208, 291n tinkering strategy, 5

toes, sucking of, 3, 37

tokens vs. types, 170

Tom (savant), 192193, 195

Tooby, J., 288n

touch, 3334, 38, 39, 177

phantom pain and, 5051, 5455

Tovee, M.J, 239, 284n

Townsend, Robert, 5254

transcranial magnetic stimulator, 174175,284n

translation barrier, 231232, 283n, 296n

transsexuals, 270n, 294n

tray experiment, 137138

trichromacy, 264n

Trimble, M.R., 285n

Trivers, Robert, 254255, 278n279n

Tudor, Mary, 294n

ulcers, cause of, xv, xvi

ultra-Darwinists, 209210

unconscious, viii-ix, 156, 235

unconscious inference, 68, 270n

Ungerleider, Leslie, 74

unified self, 251252

universe, geocentric vs. heliocentric view of, xiv, 156

Upanishads, 157

Van der Berghe, L., 289n

Van Essen, David, 272n

Van Hoesen, G.W., 284n

Venuss-flytrap, 239240

vertical black line experiment, 91, 92

vestibular cortex, 147

vestibular nerve, 147

V4 (visual area), 7273, 81, 272n

vigilant self, 252253

virtual reality device, viii, 4649, 5255

denial patients and, 140141

Dolan-Frith experiment with, 141142,280n

vision, visual system, 63112, 177, 232233, 271n275n

assumptions of, 68, 69, 271n

binocular, 8990

bottom-up view of, 109, 110, 111

color, 11, 64, 7273, 7980, 81, 102,110, 111, 185, 230, 264n, 272n, 278n

contradictory evidence and, 91, 93, 93

double, 274n

foveal, 80

imagination and, 112

multiple specialized areas of, 7273, 77, 80, 81, 102, 272n

neglect syndrome and, 115

organization of, 73, 74

Parkinsons disease and, 270n

phantom limbs and, 43, 4649, 5455

right hemisphere and, 133134

size-contrast illusion and, 8283, 82

statistical regularities and, 103104

stereoscopic, 94, 273n

subjective experience and, 55

top-down view of, 109, 110, 111, 275n, 297n

see also blindness; blind spots; how pathway; what pathway

Vision of the Brain, A (Zeki), 71

visual categories, Capgras syndrome and, 170171

visual cortex, 70, 71, 74, 233, 284n, 296n

migraines and, 89

primary, 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 76, 77, 81, 109, 110, 115, 275n

visualization therapy, 111

volume control (gate control), 51

von Cramon, D., 272n

Wall, Patrick, 267n

Wallace, Alfred Russel, 189192, 198

Ward, Betty, 140141

warmth, 3334, 50

Warrington, Elizabeth, 265n

warts, hypnosis and, 218219, 294n

Watson, James, 63, 263n

Waxman, S.G., 285n

Wegener, Alfred, 223

Weil, Andrew, 221

Weisel, Torsten, 271n

Weiskrantz, Larry, 7576, 265n, 272n

Wernickes aphasia, 277n, 280n

Wernickes area, 245

What Is Life? (Schr?dinger), xii

what pathway, 74, 7782, 110, 111, 115, 240, 247, 277n, 283n

Wheeler, John Archibald, xi

where pathway, see how pathway

Why Do Gentlemen Prefer Blondes? (Ramachandran), 202, 289n291n

Wieser, H.G., 285n

Williams, G., 288n

Wills, Christopher, 274n, 286n, 294n

Wilson, E.O., 288n

Wilson, M., 288n

Wiltshire, Stephen, 287n

Winson, J., 283n

Wright, R., 285n

writers cramp (focal dystonia), 269n

Yang, Tony, 31

Yap, G.S., 280n

yawning, 14

Young, A.W., 284n

Zeki, Semir, 9, 71, 221, 272n

Zihl, J, 272n

Zuk, M., 289n

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