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Часть 6. Не убивать, а ослаблять, отвлекать и использовать

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Часть 6. Не убивать, а ослаблять, отвлекать и использовать

1 Эпиграф: Theodor Rosebury, Microorganisms Indigenous to Man (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962) 352–353.

2 Интервью, взятые автором у Виктора Низе (Victor Nizet) в ноябре 2006 г.

3 Jesse Wright et al., “The Agr Radiation: An Early Event in the Evolution of Staphylococci”, Journal of Bacteriology 187 (2005), 5585–5594.

4 Jesse Wright, Rhuzong Jim, Richard Novick, “Transient Interference with Staphylococcal Quorum Sensing Blocks Abscess Formation”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102 (2005), 1691–1696.

5 K. A. Davis, “Ventilator Associated Pneumonia: A Review”, Journal of Intensive Care Medicine 21 (2006), 211–226.

6 Интервью, взятые автором у Ричарда Новика в ноябре 2006 г.

7 Phillip Coburn et al., “Enterococcus faecalis Senses Target Cells and in Response Expresses Cytolysin”, Science 306 (2004), 2270–2272.

8 Интервью, взятое автором у Майкла Гилмора (Michael Gilmore) в ноябре 2006 г.

9 George Liu et al., “Sword and Shield: Linked Group B Streptococcal B-hemolysin/cytolysin and Carotenoid Pigment Function to Subvert

Host Phagocyte Defense”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101 (2004) 14491-14496.

10 Vivekanand Datta et al., “Mutational Analysis of the Group A Streptococcal Operon Encoding Streptolysin S and Its Virulence Role in Invasive Infection”, Molecular Microbiology 56 (2005), 681-95; John Buchanan et al., “Dnase Expression Allows the Pathogen Group A Streptococcus to Escape Killing in Neutrophil Extracellular Traps”, Current Biology 16 (2006), 396–400.

11 Thomas Louie et al., “Tolevamer, a Novel Nonantibiotic Polymer, Compared with Vancomycin in the Treatment of Mild to Moderately Severe Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea”, Clinical Infectious Diseases 43 (2006), 411–420.

12 Личное сообщение Дэвида Дэвидсона (David Davidson, старший медицинский директор корпорации Genzyme) автору в ноябре 2006 г.

13 Критики вакцин, подавляющих патогенность, разработали математические модели, указывающие на то, что такие вакцины могут привести даже к повышению патогенности, предотвращая “наказание” патогенных штаммов смертью хозяев. Но результаты реального применения таких вакцин, например противодифтерийной, оказались прямо противоположными. См.: Benoit Soubeyrand, Stanley Plotkin, “Microbial Evolution: Antitoxin Vaccines and Pathogen Virulence”, Nature 414 (2001), 751–756.

14 “Drug-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Disease”, disease listing, National Center for Infectious Diseases /Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, October 6, 2005.

15 Moe Kyaw et al., “Effect of Introduction of the Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Drug-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae”, New England Journal of Medicine 354 (2006), 1455–1524.

16 Henry Shinefield et al., “Use of Staphylococcus aureus Conjugate Vaccine in Patients Receiving Hemodialysis”, New England Journal of Medicine 346 (2002) 491–496.

17 Yukiko Stranger-Jones et al., “Vaccine Assembly from Surface Proteins of Staphylococcus aureusProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (2006), 16942-16947.

18 Интервью, взятые автором у Юкико Стрейнджер-Джонс в ноябре – декабре 2006 г.

19 D. G. Brockstedt et al., “Killed but Metabolically Active Microbes: A New Vaccine Paradigm for Eliciting Effector T-cell Responses and Protective Immunity”, Nature Medicine 11 (2005), 853–860.

20 N. Porat et al., “Emergence of Penicillin-Nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae Clones Expressing Serotypes Not Present in the Antipneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine”, Journal of Infectious Diseases 190 (2004), 2154–2161.

21 Grace Lee et al., “Pertussis in Adolescents and Adults: Should We Vaccinate?” Pediatrics 115 (2005), 1675–1684.

22 Haemophilus Influenzae Type b (Hib) Vaccine: What You Need to Know (Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control, 2006).

23 Heikki Peltola, “Worldwide Haemophilus influenzae Type b Disease at the Beginning of the 21st Century”, Clinical Microbiology Reviews 13 (2000), 302–317.

24 Elie Metchnikoff, The Prolongation of Life (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1908).

25 Sherwood Gorbach, “The Discovery of Lactobacillus GG” Nutrition Today 31 (1996), 2S – 4S.

26 H. L. DuPont, “Prevention of Diarrhea by the Probiotic Lactobacillus GG” Journal ofPediatrics 134 (1999), 1–2; T. Arvola et al., “Prophylactic Lactobacillus GG Reduces Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Children with Respiratory Infections: A Randomized Study”, Pediatrics 104 (1999), e64; E. Hilton et al., “Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG as a Diarrheal Preventive in Travelers”, Journal of Travel Medicine 4 (1997), 41–43; J. A. Billier et al., “Treatment of Recurrent Clostridium difficile Colitis with Lactobacillus GG” Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 21 (1995), 224–226.

27 Andrew Bruce et al., “Recurrent Urethritis in Women”, Canadian Medical Association Journal 108 (1973), 973–976; Andrew Bruce et al., “The Significance of Perineal Pathogens in Women”, Journal of Urology 112 (1974), 808–810.

28 J. D. Sobel, “Is There a Protective Role for Vaginal Flora?” Current Infectious Disease Reports 1 (1999), 379–383; Marie Pirotta et al., “Effect of Lactobacillus in Preventing Post-antibiotic Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: A Randomised Controlled Trial”, British Medical Journal 329 (2004), 548–551; T. Kontiokari et al., “Randomized Trial of Cranberry-Lingonberry Juice and Lactobacillus GG Drink for the Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections in Women”, British Medical Journal 322 (2001), 1571–1575.

29 Gregor Reid, “In Vitro Testing of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM as a Possible Probiotic for the Urogenital Tract”, International Dairy Journal 10 (2000), 415–419.

30 R. C. Chan, A. W. Bruce, G. Reid, “Adherence of Cervical, Vaginal and Distal Urethral Normal Microbial Flora to Human Uroepithelial Cells and the Inhibition of Adherence of Gram-negative Uropathogens by Competitive Exclusion”, Journal of Urology 131 (1984), 596–601; Gregor Reid, Andrew Bruce, “Selection of Lactobacillus Strains for Urogenital Probiotic Applications”, Journal of Infectious Diseases 183 (2001), S77 – S80; Gillian Gardiner et al., “Persistence of Lactobacillus fermentum RC-14 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 but not L. rhamnosus GG in the Human Vagina as Demonstrated by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA”, Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 9 (2002), 92–96.

31 Gregor Reid et al., “Probiotic Lactobacillus Dose Required to Restore and Maintain a Normal Vaginal Flora”, FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 32 (2001), 37–41; Gardiner et al., “Persistence of Lactobacillus fermentum RC-14”.

32 Kingsley Anukam et al., “Clinical Study Comparing Probiotic Lactobacillus GR-1 and RC-14 with Metronidazole Vaginal Gel to Treat Symptomatic Bacterial Vaginosis”, Microbes and Infection 8 (2006), 2772–2776.

33 Jarrow Formulas, “Unique Probiotic Concept for Women Now Launched in USA”, пресс-релиз от 4 апреля 2006 г.

34 Ngo Th1 Hoa et al., “Characterization of Bacillus Species Used for Oral Bacteriotherapy and Bacterioprophylaxis of Gastrointestinal Disorders”, Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66 (2000), 5241–5247; Gregor Reid, “Safe and Efficacious Probiotics: What Are They?” Trends in Microbiology 14 (2006), 348–352.

35 Kristian Roos et al., “Perianal Streptococcal Dermatitis. The Possible Protective Role of Alpha-streptococci Against Spread and Recurrence of Group A Streptococcal Throat Infection”, Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care 17 (1999), 46–48.

36 Kristian Roos et al., “Recolonization with Selected Alpha-streptococci for Prophylaxis of Recurrent Streptococcal Pharyngotonsillitis – A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Multicentre Study”, Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Disease 28 (1996), 459–462.

37 G. Falck et al., “Tolerance and Efficacy of Interfering AlphaStreptococci in Recurrence of Streptococcal Pharyngotonsillitis”, Acta Oto-Laryngologica 119 (1999), 944–948.

38 Kristian Roos et al., “Effect of Recolonisation with Interfering Alpha Streptococci on Recurrences of Acute and Secretory Otitis Media in Children: Randomised Placebo Controlled Trial”, British Medical Journal 322 (2001), 1–4.

39 Janet Raloff, “’Bug, Spray Cuts Risk of Ear Infection”, Science News, February 3, 2001; Lee Bowman, “Study Suggests Alternative to Antibiotics for Ear Infections”, Scripps Howard News Service, January 2001; Mary Ann Moon, “Microbial Nasal Spray Wards Off Recurrent Otitis”, Family Practice News, May 1, 2001; “A Nasal Spray to Prevent Otitis Media”, Hearing Journal, April 1, 2001.

40 Glenn Takata et al., “Evidence Assessment of Management of Acute Otitis Media: I. The Role of Antibiotics in Treatment of Uncomplicated Acute Otitis Media”, Pediatrics 108 (2001), 239–247.

41 Интервью, взятые автором у Келли Карпы – профессора фармакологии из Медицинского колледжа Университета штата Пенсильвания. Ее книга “Бактерии на завтрак” – Kelly Karpa, Bacteria for Breakfast (Trafford Publishing, 2006) – рассказывает о тех мучениях, которые ей самой пришлось пережить в поисках средств от повторявшихся у ее шестилетнего сына тяжелых колитов, вызываемых C. difficile.

42 L. V. McFarland, “Meta-analysis of Probiotics for the Prevention of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea and the Treatment of Clostridium difficile Disease”, American Journal of Gastroenterology 101 (2006), 812–822; Mario Guslandi, “Are Probiotics Effective for Treating Clostridium difficile Disease and Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea”, Nature Clinical Practice 3 (2006), 606–607.

43 “ViroPharma Licenses Rights to Develop Novel Therapeutic for Treatment of Clostridium difficile”, пресс-релиз компании от 27 февраля 2006 г.

44 См. часть 4, стр. 108–109.

45 R. W. Steele, “Recurrent Staphylococcal Infection in Families”, Archives of Dermatology 116 (1980), 189–190.

46 Интервью, взятые автором у Ричарда Халла, и переписка по электронной почте с января 2005 г. по ноябрь 2006 г.

47 Peter Andersson et al., “Persistence of Escherichia coli Bacteriuria Is Not Determined by Bacterial Adherence”, Infection and Immunity 59 (1991), 2915–2921; Richard Hull et al., “Virulence Properties of Escherichia coli 83972, a Prototype Strain Associated with Asymptomatic Bacteriuria”, Infection and Immunity 67 (1999), 429–432.

48 Richard Hull et al., “Urinary Tract Infection Prophylaxis Using Escherichia coli 83972 in Spinal Cord Injured Patients”, Journal of Urology 163 (2000), 872–877; Rabih Darouiche et al., “Pilot Trial of Bacterial Interference for Preventing Urinary Tract Infection”, Urology 58 (2001), 339–344.

49 B. W. Trautner et al., “Escherichia coli 83972 Inhibits Catheter Adherence by a Broad Spectrum of Uropathogens”, Urology 61 (2005), 1059–1062; Rabih Darouiche et al., “Bacterial Interference for Prevention of Urinary Tract Infection: A Prospective, Randomized Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Pilot Trial”, Clinical Infectious Diseases 41 (2005), 1531–1534. Более масштабное и продолжительное испытание должно завершиться в 2008 г.

50 Hull et al., “Virulence Properties of Escherichia coli 83972”; Richard Hull et al., “Role of Type 1 Fimbria- and P Fimbria-Specific Adherence in Colonization of the Neurogenic Human Bladder by Escherichia coli”, Infection and Immunity 70 (2002), 6481–6484.

51 Jeffrey Hillman, “Lactate Dehydrogenase Mutants of Streptococcus mutans: Isolation and Preliminary Characterization”, Infection and Immunity 21 (1978), 206–212.

52 R. J. Berkowitz, P. Jones, “Mouth-to-Mouth Transmission of the Bacterium Streptococcus mutans Between Mother and Child”, Archives of Oral Biology 30 (1985), 377–379.

53 Jeffrey Hillman et al., “Isolation of a Streptococcus mutans Strain Producing a Novel Bacteriocin”, Infection and Immunity 44 (1984), 141–144.

54 Jeffrey Hillman et al., “Colonization of the Human Oral Cavity by a Strain of Streptococcus mutans Mutant Producing Increased Bacteriocin”, Journal of Dental Research 66 (1987), 1092–1094.

55 Jeffrey Hillman et al., “Construction and Characterization of an Effector Strain of Streptococcus mutans for Replacement Therapy of Dental Caries”, Infection and Immunity 68 (2000), 543–549.

56 Интервью, взятое автором у Майкела Пеппеленбоса (Maikel Peppelenbosch) 1 февраля 2007 г.

57 Lothar Steidler et al., “Treatment of Murine Colitis by Eactococcus lactis Secreting Interleukin-10”, Science 5483 (2000), 1352–1355.

58 H enri Braat et al., “A Phase I Trial with Transgenic Bacteria Expressing Interleukin-10 in Crohn’s Disease”, Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 4 (2006), 754–759.

59 Janice Liu et al., “Activity of HIV Entry and Fusion Inhibitors Expressed by the Human Vaginal Colonizing Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri PC-14”, Cellular Microbiology 9 (2007’), 120–130.

60 Интервью, взятые автором у Питера Ли (Peter Lee), и переписка по электронной почте с января 2005 г. по декабрь 2006 г.

61 N. Sewankambo et al., “HIV-1 Infection Associated with Abnormal Vaginal Flora Morphology and Bacterial Vaginosis”, Lancet 350 (1997), 546–550; H. L. Martin et al., “Vaginal Lactobacilli, Microbial Flora, and the Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Sexually Transmitted Disease Acquisition”, Journal of Infectious Diseases 180 (1999), 1863–1868.

62 Theresa L.-Y. Chang, “Inhibition of HIV Infectivity by a Natural Human Isolate of Lactobacillus jensenii Engineered to Express Functional Two-Domain CD4”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100 (2003), 11672-11677.

63 M. K. Boyd et al., “Discovery of Cyanovirin-N, a Novel Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Inactivating Protein That Binds Viral Surface Envelop Glycoprotein ghl20: Potential Applications to Microbicide Development”, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 41 (1997), 1521–1530; C. C. P. Tsai et al., “Cyanovirin-N Inhibits AIDS Virus Infections in Vaginal Transmission Models”, AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 20 (2004), 11–18.

64 Xiaowen Liu et al., “Engineered Vaginal Lactobacillus Strain for Mucosal Delivery of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Inhibitor Cyanovirin-N”, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 50 (2006), 3250–3259.

65 D. Medaglini et al., “Mucosal and Systemic Immune Responses to a Recombinant Protein Expressed on the Surface of the Oral Commensal Bacterium Streptococcus gordonii After Oral Colonization”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 92 (1995), 6868–6872.

66 Ashu Sharma et al., “Oral Immunization with Recombinant Streptococcus gordonii Expressing Porphyromonas gingivalis FimA Domains”, Infection and Immunity 69 (2001), 2928–2934.

67 Corinne Grangette et al., “Protection Against Tetanus Toxin After Intragastric Administration of Two Recombinant Lactic Acid Bacteria: Impact of Strain Viability7 and In Vitro Persistence”, Vaccine 20 (2002), 3304–3309; B. Corthesy et al., “Oral Immunization of Mice with Lactic Acid Bacteria Producing Helicobacter pylori Urease B Subunit Partially Protects Against Challenge with Helicobacter felis”, Journal of Infectious Diseases 192 (2005), 1441–1449.

68 L. Scheppler et al., “Intranasal Immunisation Using Recombinant Lactobacill johnsonii as a New Strategy to Prevent Allergic Disease”, Vaccine 9 (2005), 1126–1134.

69 Scheppler et al., “Intranasal Immunisation Using Recombinant Lactobacillus johnsonii”; B. Stadler et al., “Lactic Acid Bacteria as Agents for Preventing Allergy”, заявка на патент США № 200402655290.

70 Eva Medina, Carlos Alberto Guzman, “Use of Live Bacterial Vaccine Vectors for Antigen Delivery: Potential and Limitations”, Vaccine 19 (2001), 1573–1580.

71 Переписка Джо Камминса (Joe Cummins) с автором по электронной почте в ноябре 2006 г.

72 Ronald Jackson et al., “Expression of Mouse Interleukin-4 by Recombinant Ectromelia Virus Suppresses Cytolytic Lymphocyte Responses and Overcomes Genetic Resistance in Mousepox”, Journal of Virology75 (2001), 1205–1210; Rachel Nowak, “Disaster in the Making”, New Scientist, January 3, 2001, 4–5.

73 NADA 141–101 PREEMPT™ – original approval (одобрение средства “Preempt” Управлением пищевых продуктов и медикаментов и краткое описание методов использования и действия этого средства), см. www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary / Products /Approved AnimalDrugProducts / FOIADrugSummaries / ucm117130.htm.

74 J. Raloff, “Spray Guards Chicks from Infections”, Science News, March 28 1998, 196.

75 Интервью, взятые автором у Тодда Кэллауэя (Todd Callaway) в сентябре – декабре 2006 г.

76 Kenneth Genovese et al., “Protection of Suckling Neonatal Pigs Against Infection with an Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Expressing 987P Fimbriae by the Administration of a Bacterial Competitive Exclusion Culture”, Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 13 (2001), 223–228; Roger Harvey et al., “Use of Competitive Exclusion to Control Enterotoxigenic Strains of Escherichia coli Weaned Pigs”, Journal of Animal Science 83 (2005), E44 – E47.

77 R. E. Holland, “Infectious Causes of Diarrhea in Young Farm Animals”, Clinical Microbiology Reviews 3 (1990), 345–375; S. Tzipori, “The Relative Importance of Enteric Pathogens Affecting Neonates of Domestic Animals”, Advances in Veterinary Science and Comparative Medicine 29 (1985), 103–206.

78 И нтервью, взятое автором у Фрэнсиса Форста (Francis Forst) 28 ноября 2006 г.

79 Интервью, взятые автором у Дэвида Талера, и переписка по электронной почте с декабря 2004 г. по декабрь 2006 г., а также неопубликованная рукопись: David Thaler, “The Microbial Neolithic Revolution”.

80 David Thaler, “The Evolution of Genetic Intelligence”, Science 264 (1994), 224–225; David Thaler, “Hereditary Stability and Variation in Evolution and Development”, Evolution and Development 1 (1999), 113–122.

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