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Часть 3. Не слишком ли мы чистые?

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Часть 3. Не слишком ли мы чистые?

1 Эпиграф: Charles Dudley Warner, My Summer in a Garden (1870; Modern Library, 2002), 4.

2 Joseph Kirsner, “Historical Origins of Current IBD Concepts”, World Journal of Gastroenterology 7 (2001), 175–184; Richard Logan, “Inflammatory Bowel Disease Incidence: Up, Down or Unchanged?” Gut 42 (1998), 309–311.

3 Я впервые услышала термин “болезнь гражданства” от соседа, иммигранта из Нигерии в первом поколении, который говорит, что слышал этот термин также от иммигрантов из России.

4 Hasan Arshad, Suresh Babu, Stephen Holdate, “History of Allergy” // Martin Dunitz, ed., Anti-IgE Therapy for Asthma and Allergy (London: Taylor & Francis, 2001).

5 M. B. Emanuel, “Hay Fever, a Post-industrial Revolution Epidemic: A History of Its Growth During the 19th Century”, Clinical Allergy 18 (1988), 295–304.

6 William Heberden, Commentarii de moroborum historia et curatione (London: 1802), глава 11.

7 John Bostock, “On the Catarrhus aestivus or Summer Catarrh”, Medico-Chirurgical Transactions 14 (1828), 437–446.

8 Charles Blackley, Experimental Researches on the Causes and Nature of Cattarrhus aestivus (Hay-Fever or Hay-Asthma) (London: Balliere, Tindeall and Cox, 1873).

9 Emanuel, “Hay Fever”.

10 Alfred Neugut et al., “Anaphylaxis in the United States”, Archives of Internal Medicine 161 (2001), 15–21; Hugh Sampson, “Food Allergy. Part 1: Immunopathogenesis and Clinical Disorders”, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 103 (1999), 717–728.

11 Spyros Marketos, Constantine Bailas, “Bronchial Asthma in the Medical Literature of Greek Antiquity”, Journal of Asthma 19 (1982), 263–269.

12 Oystein Ore, Cardano the Gambling Scholar (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1953).

13 Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America, Chronic Conditions: A Challenge for the 21st Century (National Academy on an Aging Society, 2000).

14 B. Taylor et al., “Changes in the Reported Prevalence of Childhood Eczema Since the 1939-45 War”, Lancet 2 (1984), 1255–1257.

15 D. P. Strachan, R. A. Elton, “Relationship Between Respiratory Morbidity in Children and the Home Environment”, Family Practice 3 (1986), 137–142.

16 David Strachan, “Hay Fever, Hygiene, and Household Size”, British Medical Journal 299 (1989), 1259–1260.

17 C. Svanes et al., “Childhood Environment and Adult Atopy: Results from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey”, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 103 (999), 415–420.

18 David Strachan, “Family Size, Infection and Atopy”, Thorax55 (2000), S2 – S10.

19 S. L. Prescott et al., “Development of Allergen-Specific T-cell Memory in Atopic and Normal Children”, Lancet 353 (1999), 196–200; F. D. Martinez, “Maturation of Immune Responses at the Beginning of Asthma”, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 103 (1999), 355–361.

20 “Plagued by Cures”, Economist, November 22, 1997, 95.

21 Thomas Ball et al., “Siblings, Day-Care Attendance and the Risk of Asthma and Wheezing During Childhood”, New England Journal of Medicine 343 (2000), 538–543.

22 David Strachan et al., “Family Structure, Neonatal Infection and Hay Fever in Adolescence”, Archives of Diseases in Childhood 74 (1996), 422–426.

23 K. Wickens et al., “Antibiotic Use in Early Childhood and the Development of Asthma”, Clinical and Experimental Allergy 6 (1999), 766–771; J. H. Droste et al., “Does the Use of Antibiotics in Early Childhood Increase the Risk of Asthma and Allergic Disease?” Clinical and Experimental Allergy 11 (2000), 1547–1553; T. M. McKeever et al., “Early Exposure to Infections and Antibiotics and the Incidence of Allergic Disease”, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 109 (2002), 43–50; Anne-Louise Ponsonby et al., “Relationship

Between Early Life Respiratory Illness, Family Size over Time, and the Development of Asthma and Hay Fever: A Seven-Year Follow-up Study”, Thorax 54 (1999), 664–669; Christine Stabell Ben et al., “Cohort Study of Sibling Effect, Infectious Diseases, and Risk of Atopic Dermatitis During the First 18 Months of Life”, British Medical Journal 328 (2004), 1223–1226.

24 David Poskanzer et al., “Polio and Multiple Sclerosis”, Lancet (1963), 917–921; David Poskanzer et al., “Polio and Multiple Sclerosis”, Acta Neurological Scandinavica 42-S19 (1966), 85–90.

25 C. C. Patterson et al., “Is Childhood-Onset Type 1 Diabetes a Wealth-Related Disease?” Diabetologia 44 (2001), supp. 3, B9 – B16.

26 Patricia McKinney et al., “Early Social Mixing and Childhood Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus”, Diabetic Medicine 17 (2000), 236–242.

27 A. L. Marshall et al., “Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Childhood: A Matched Case Control Study in Lancashire and Cumbria, U. K”., Diabetic Medicine 21 (2004), 1035–1040.

28 Jean-Francois Bach, “The Effect of Infections on Susceptibility to Autoimmune and Allergic Diseases”, New England Journal of Medicine 347 (2002), 911–920; EURODIAB ACE Study Group,

“Variation and Trends in Incidence of Childhood Diabetes in Europe”, Lancet 355 (2000), 873–876; F. Farrokhyar et al., “A Critical Review of Epidemiological Studies in Inflammatory Bowel Disease”, Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 36 (2001), 2-15.

29 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, The Allergy Report: Science Based Findings on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Disorders, 1996–2001; D. L. Jacobson et al., “Epidemiology and Estimated Population Bur den of Selected Autoimmune Diseases in the United States”, Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology 84 (1997), 223–243.

30 Результаты исследования, проведенного Американским фондом борьбы с волчанкой (Lupus Foundation of America, www.lupus.org) среди членов фонда.

31 Erika von Mutius et al. “Increasing Prevalence of Hay Fever and Atopy Among Children in Leipzig, East Germany”, Lancet 351 (1998), 862–866.

32 Charlotte Braun-Fahrl?nder et al., “Prevalence of Hay Fever and Allergic Sensitization in Farmers’ Children and Their Peers Living in the Same Rural Community”, Clinical and Experimental Allergy 29 (1999), 28–34.

33 JosefRidler et al., “Exposure to Farming in Early Life and Development of Asthma and Allergy: A Cross-Sectional Survey”, Lancet 358 (2001), 1129–1133; S. T. Remes et al., “Livestock over Field Crops: Which Factors Explain the Lower Prevalence of Atopy Amongst Farmers’ Children”, Clinical and Experimental Allergy 33 (2003), 427–434.

34 Charlotte Braun-Fahrl?nder, Erika von Mutius, Allergy and Endotoxin Study Team, “Environmental Exposure to Endotoxin and Its Relation to Asthma in School-Age Children”, New England Journal of Medicine 347 (2002), 869–877.

35 “Dogs over Cats: Childhood Environment and Adult Atopy: Results

from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey”, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 103 (1999), 415–420; Marco Waser et al., “Exposure to Pets, and the Association with Hay Fever, Asthma, and Atopic Sensitization in Rural Children”, Allergy 60 (2005), 177–184; Erika von Mutius et al., “Exposure to Endotoxin or Other Bacterial Components Might Protect Against the Development of Atopy”, Clinical and Experimental Allergy 30 (2000), 1230–1234.

36 Paolo Matricardi et al., “Exposure to Foodborne and Orofecal Microbes Versus Airborne Viruses in Relation to Atopy and Allergic Asthma: Epidemiological Study”, British Medical Journal 320 (2000), 412–417. Интересно, кстати, что в 2003 году американский иммунолог Дейл Умэцу показал, что гепатит A, возбудитель которого – единственный вирус, для которого была показана связь со снижением заболеваемости аллергиями и астмой, может непосредственно уничтожать T-клетки второго типа, склонные вызывать развитие этих расстройств. Dale Umetsu et al., “Hepatitis A Virus Link to Atopic Disease”, Nature 425 (2003), 576.

37 Dale Umetsu et al., “Functional Heterogeneity Among Human Inducer T Cell Clones”, Journal of Immunology 140 (1988), 4211–4216.

38 Peter Yeung et al., “Heat-Killed Listeria monocytogenes as an Adjuvant Converts Established Murine Th2-Dominated Immune Responses into Th1-Dominated Responses”, Journal of Immunology 151 (1998), 4146–4152.

39 Gesine Hansen et al., “Allergen-Specific Th1 Cells Fail to Counterbalance Th2 Cell-Induced Airway Hyperreactivity but Cause Severe Airway Inflammation”, Journal of Clinical Investigation 103 (1999), 175–183.

40 Philippe Stock et al., “Induction of T Helper Type 1-like Regulatory Cells That Express Foxp3 and Protect Against Airway Hyper-reactivity”, Nature Immunology (2004), 1149–1156.

41 Shohei Hori et al., “Control of Regulatory T Cell Development by the Transcription Factor Foxp3”, Science 299 (2003), 1057–1061.

42 R. S. Wildin et al., “Clinical and Molecular Features of the Immunodysregulation, Polyendocrmopathy, Enteropathy, X Linked (IPEX) Syndrome”, Journal of Medical Genetics 39 (2002), 537–545.

43 Stock et al., “Induction of T Helper Type 1-like Regulatory Cells”.

44 Толл-подобные рецепторы получили такое название вовсе не ради аллюзии на toll booths (будки для сбора денег за проезд по платным дорогам или парковку), а за свое сходство с белком плодовых мушек, который в испорченном состоянии придает им несуразный вид. “Несуразный”по-немецки toll, поэтому Кристиана Нюсляйн-Фольхард (Christiane N?sslein-Volhard), открывшая эти белки немецкая исследовательница, и дала им такое название.

45 Эта жизненно важная игра в “покажи и расскажи”происходит в основном в лимфатических узлах – этих сгустках специализированной иммунной ткани, в буквальном смысле распухающих от бурной деятельности во время инфекции.

46 R. Maldonado-Lopez et al., “CD8 Subclasses of Dendritic Cells Direct the Development of Distinct T Helper Cells In Vivo”, Journal of Experimental Medicine 189 (1999), 587–592.

47 Akiko Iwasaki, Ruslan Medzhitov, “Toll-like Receptor Control of the Adaptive Immune Responses”, Nature Immunology 5 (2004), 987–995.

48 Daniel Hawiger et al., “Dendritic Cells Induce Peripheral T-cell Unresponsiveness Under Steady State Conditions In Vivo”, Journal of Experimental Medicine 194 (2001), 769–779.

49 Ralph Steinman et al., “Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells”, Annual Review of Immunology 21 (2003), 685–711.

50 Ralph Steinman et al., “Dendritic Cells Function In Vivo During the Steady-State: A Role in Peripheral Tolerance”, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 987 (2003), 15–27.

51 Stock et al., “Induction of T Helper Type 1-like Regulatory Cells”.

52 Holden Maecker et al., “Vaccination with Allergin-IL-18 Fusion DNA Protects Against, and Reverses Established, Airway Hyperreactivity in a Murine Asthma Model”, Journal of Immunology 166 (2001), 959–965.

53 Braun-Fahrl?nder et al., “Environmental Exposure to Endotoxin”.

54 Waltraud Eder et al., “Toll-like Receptor 2 as a Major Gene for Asthma in Children of European Farmers”, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 113 (2004), 482–488.

55 John M. Grange, “Effective Vaccination Against Tuberculosis – A New Ray of Hope”, Clinical and Experimental Immunology 120 (2000), 232–234.

56 Christian Lienhardt, Alimuddin Zumla, “BCG: The Story Continues”, Lancet 366 (2005), 1414–1416.

57 G. M. Bahr et al., “Two Potential Improvements to BCG and Their Effect on Skin Test Reactivity in the Lebanon”, Tubercle 67 (1986), 205–216; John Stanford, “Improving on BCG”, Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica 99 (1991), 103–113.

58 G. D. Prema et al., “A Preliminary Report on the Immunotherapy of Psoriasis”, Indian Medical Gazette 124 (1990), 381–382.

59 G. B. Marks et al., “The Effect of Neonatal BCG Vaccination on Atopy and Asthma at Age 7 to 14 Years: An Historical Cohort Study in a Community with a Very Low Prevalence of Tuberculosis Infection and a High Prevalence of Atopic Disease”, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 111 (2003), 541–549; C. B. Saanjeevi et al., “BCG Vaccination and GAD65 and IA-2 Autoantibodies in Auto-immune Diabetes in Southern India”, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 958 (2002), 293–296; Ramesh Bhonde and Pradeep Prab, “Can We Say Bye to BCG?” Current Science 77 (1999), 1283.

60 A. B. Alexandroff et al., “BCG Immunotherapy of Bladder Cancer: 20 Years On”, Lancet 9165 (1999), 1689–1694.

61 Судя по обзору медицинской литературы по состоянию на 1999 г., использование вакцины Коули обеспечивало уровень коэффициента выживаемости, сравнимый с тем, которого добивались онкологи, лечившие те же разновидности опухолей современными методами. Stephen Hoption Cann et al., “Dr. William Coley and Tumour Regression, a Place in History or in the Future”, Postgraduate Medicine 79 (2003), 672–680.

62 Mary Ann Richardson et al, “Coley Toxins Immunotherapy, a Retrospective Review”, Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 5 (1999), 42–47.

63 Аллергия и астма: L. Camporota et al., “Effects of Intradermal Injection of SRL 172 on Allergen-Induced Airway Responses and IL-5 Generation by PBMC in Asthma”, Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 161 (2000); Peter Arkwright et al., “Intradermal Administration of a Killed Mycobacterium vaccae Suspension (SRL 172) Is Associated with Improvement in Atopic Dermatitis in Children with Moderate-to-Severe Disease”, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 107 (2001), 531–534; L. Camporota et al., “The Effects of Mycobacterium vaccae on Allergen-Induced Airway Responses in Atopic Asthma”, European Respiratory Journal 21 (2003), 287293. Рак: L. Assersohn et al, “A Randomised Pilot Study of SRL 172 (Mycobacterium vaccae) in Patients with Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated with Chemotherapy”, Clinical Oncology 14 (2002), 23–27; R. Mendes et al., “Clinical and Immunological Assessment of Mycobacterium vaccae (SRL 172) with Chemotherapy in Patients with Malignant Mesethelioma”, British Journal of Cancer 86 (2002), 336–341; S. Nicholson et al., “A Randomized Phase II Trials of SRL 172 (Mycobacterium vaccae) +/– Low-Dose Interleukin-2 in the Treatment of Metastatic Malignant Melanoma”, Melanoma Research 13 (2003), 389–393; A. Maraveyas et al., “Possible Improved Survival of Patients with Stage IV AJCC Melanoma Receiving SRL 172 Immunotherapy: Correlation with Induction of Increased Levels of Intracellular Interleukin-2 in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes”, Annals of Oncology 10 (1999), 817–824; P. M. Patel et al., “An Evaluation of a Preparation of Mycobacterium vaccae (SRL172) as an Immunotherapeutic Agent in Renal Cancer”, European Journal of Cancer 44 (2008), 216–223.

64 The Dirt Vaccine (документальный фильм, показанный Би-би-си в 2002 г.), серия The Edge Series: Health and Medicine, Eco Services Film; Garry Hamilton, “Let Them Eat Dirt”, New Scientist, July 18, 1998; Susan McCarthy, “Talking Dirty and Bring on the Germs”, salon.com, April 2000.

65 Mary O’Brien et al., “SRL172 (Killed Mycobacterium vaccae) in Addition to Standard Chemotherapy Improves Quality of Life Without Affecting Survival, in Patients with Advanced Non-small-cell Lung Cancer: Phase III Results”, Annals of Oncology 15 (2004), 906–914.

66 John Stanford et al., “Successful Immunotherapy with Mycobacterium vaccae in the Treatment of Adenocarcinoma of the Lung”, European Journal of Cancer 44 (2008), 224–227.

67 11 апреля 2001 г. стоимость акций SR Pharma упала на 76,9 %. Это было самое сильное падение за этот день по данным индекса FTSE 100.

68 National Sweet Itch Centre, “Studies on the Prevention and Treatment of Sweet-Itch”, www.sweet-itch.co.uk/ trials.html.

69 Неопубликованные данные: John Stanford, Graham McIntyre (Centre for Infectious Diseases and International Health, University College London), 2006.

70 Claudia Zuany-Amorin et al., “Suppression of Airway Eosinophilia by Killed Mycobacterium vaccae-lnduced Allergen-Specific Regulatory T-cells”, Nature Medicine 8 (2002), 625–629; Victoria Adams et al., “Mycobacterium vaccae Induces a Population of Pulmonary CDiic (+) Cells with Regulatory Potential in Allergic Mice”, European Journal of Immunology 34 (2004), 631–638.

71 Неопубликованные данные: Graham Rook, 2006.

72 Fawziah Marra et al., “Does Antibiotic Exposure During Infancy Lead to Development of Asthma? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (of Seven Studies)”, Chest 129 (2006), 610–618.

73 Mairi Noverr et al., “Development of Allergic Airway Disease in Mice Following Antibiotic Therapy and Fungal Microbiota Increase: Role of Host Genetics, Antigen, and Interleukin-13”, Infection and Immunity 73 (2005), 30–38; Mairi Noverr, Gary Huffnagle, “Does the Microbiota Regulate Immune Responses Outside the Gut?” Trends in Microbiology 12 (2004), 562–568; Mairi Noverr, Gary Huffnagle, “Role of Antibiotics and Fungal Microbiota in Driving Pulmonary Allergic Responses”, Infection and Immunity 72 (2004), 4996–5003.

74 B. Laubereau et al., “Caesarean Section and Gastrointestinal Symptoms, Atopic Dermatitis, and Sensitisation During the First Year of Life”, Archives of Diseases of Children 89 (2004), 993–997.

75 A. C. Ouwehand et al., “Differences in Bifidobacterium Flora Composition in Allergic and Healthy Infants”, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 108 (2001), 144–145.

76 B. Bj?rksten et al., “The Intestinal Microflora in Allergic Estonian and Swedish Infants”, Clinical and Experimental Allergy 29 (1999), 342346; E. Sepp et al., “Intestinal Microflora of Estonian and Swedish Infants”, Acta Paediatrica 86 (1997), 956–961.

77 Anita van den Biggelaar et al., “Long-Term Treatment of Intestinal Helminths In creases Mite Skin-Test Reactivity in Gabonese Schoolchildren”, Journal of Infectious Diseases 189 (2004), 892–900.

78 R. W. Summers et al., “Trichuris suis Therapy in Crohn’s Disease”, Gut 54 (2005), 87–90.

79 Charlotte Schubert, “The Worm Has Turned”, Nature Medicine 10 (2004), 1204–1271.

80 Christopher Lowry, “Functional Subsets of Serotonergic Neurones”, Journal of Neuroendocrinology 14 (2002), 911–923; Christopher

Lowry et al., “Modulation of Anxiety Circuits by Serotonergic Systems”, Stress 8 (2005), 233–246.

81 Rose-Marie Bluthe et al., “Central Injection of IL-10 Antagonizes the Behavioral Effects of Lipopolysaccharide in Rats”, Psychoneuroendocrinology 24 (1999), 301–311.

82 Marianne Wamboldt et al., “Familial Association Between Allergic Disorders and Depression in Adult Finnish Twins”, American Journal of Medical Genetics 96 (2000), 146–153.

83 M. Maes et al., “In Vitro Immunoregulatory Effects of Lithium in Healthy Volunteers”, Psychopharmacology 143 (1999), 401; Marta Kubera et al., “Anti-inflammatory Effects of Antidepressants Through Suppression of the Interferon-gamma / Interleukin-10 Production Ratio”, Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 21 (2001), 199–206; Brian Leonard, “The Immune System, Depression and the Action of Antidepressants”, Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 25 (2001), 767–780; Sinead O’Brien et al.,

“Cytokines: Abnormalities in Major Depression and Implications for Pharmacological Treatment”, Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental 19 (2004), 397–403; Nathalie Castanon et al., “Chronic Administration of Tianeptine Balances Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Expression of Cytokines in the Spleen and Hypothalamus of Rats”, Psychoneuroendocrinology 29 (2004), 778–790.

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