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Часть 7. Лечить больного, а не болезнь

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Часть 7. Лечить больного, а не болезнь

1 Эпиграф: Lewis Thomas, Lives of a Cell: Notes of a Biology Watcher (New York: Penguin, 1978), 78.

2 Интервью, взятые автором у Кевина Трейси в ноябре 2006 г. Подробнее узнать об истории Дженис и о новаторских исследованиях природы септического шока и тяжелого сепсиса, которыми занимался Трейси, можно в его глубоко информативной книге воспоминаний, прочитать которую я всячески рекомендую: Kevin Tracey, Fatal Sequence: The Killer Within (Washington, D. C.: Dana Press, 2005).

3 Derek Angus et al., “Epidemiology of Severe Sepsis in the United States: Analysis of Incidence, Outcome, and Associated Costs of Care”, Critical Care Medicine 29 (2001), 1303–1310.

4 Brian Beutler et al., “Passive Immunization Against Cachectin/ Tumor Necrosis Factor Protects Mice from Lethal Effect of Endotoxin”, Science 229 (1985), 869–871.

5 Kevin Tracey et al., “Shock and Tissue Injury Induced by Recombinant Human Cachectin”, Science 234 (1986), 470–474.

6 Kevin Tracey et al., “Anti-cachectin/TNF Monoclonal Antibodies Prevent Septic Shock During Lethal Bacteremia”, Nature 330 (1987), 662–464.

7 Huan Wang et al., “HMG-1 as a Late Mediator of Endotoxin Lethality in Mice”, Science 285 (1999), 248–251; Huan Yang et al., “Reversing Established Sepsis with Antagonists of Endogenous High-Mobility Group Box 1”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101 (2004), 296–301.

8 L. V. Borovikova et al., “Vagus Nerve Stimulation Attenuates the Systemic Inflammatory Response to Endotoxin”, Nature 405 (2000), 458–462.

9 Hong Wang et al., “Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor alpha/ Subunit Is an Essen tial Regulator of Inflammation”, Nature 421 (2003), 384388; Kevin Tracey, “The Inflammatory Reflex”, Nature 420 (2002), 853–859.

10 Thomas Bernik et al., “Pharmacological Stimulation of the Cholinergic Anti inflammatory Pathway”, Journal of Experimental Medicine 195 (2002), 781–788; H. Wang et al., “Cholinergic Agonists Inhibit HMGB1 Release and Improve Survival in Experimental Sepsis”, Nature Medicine 10 (2004), 1216–1221.

11 Greta Van den Berghe et al., “Intensive Insulin Therapy in Critically Ill Patients”, New England Journal of Medicine 345 (2001), 1359–1367.

12 Greg Martin et al., “The Epidemiology of Sepsis in the United States from 1979 Through 2000”, New England Journal of Medicine 348 (2003), 1546–1554.

13 Derek Angus, “Sepsis on the Rise in the United States”, 32nd annual Critical Care Congress, San Antonio, Texas, 2003; Derek Angus et al., “Epidemiology of Severe Sepsis in the United States: Analysis of Incidence, Outcome, and Associated Costs of Care”, Critical Care Medicine 29 (2001), 1303–1310.

14 Garth Ehrlich et al., “Device-Related Infections of Prosthetic Devices in the United States, Table 1 in Engineering Approaches for the Detection and Control of Orthopaedic Biofilm Infections”, Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 2005 (437), 59–66. Примечание. В указанной таблице не учтены искусственные хрусталики глаза, которых в США ежегодно имплантируют от одного до двух миллионов, что в 7-10 % случаев приводит к развитию инфекций. Источник: A. Hornblass et al., “Current Techniques of Enucleation: A Survey of 5,439 Intraorbital Implants and a Review of the Literature”, Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 11 (1995), 77–86.

15 Garth Ehrlich et al., “Intelligent Implants to Battle Biofilms”, ASM News 70 (2004), 127–133.

16 Joel Epstein et al., “A Survey of Antibiotic Use in Dentistry”, Journal of the American Dental Association 131 (2000), 1600–1609; G. W. Meyer, A. L. Artis, “Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Orthopedic Prostheses and GI Procedures: A Report of a Survey”, American Journal of Gastroenterology 92 (1997), 989–991; P. B. Lockhart et al., “Decision-Making on the Use of Antimicrobial Prophylaxis for Dental Procedures: A Survey of Infectious Disease Consultants and a Review”, Clinical Infectious Diseases 34 (2002), 1621–1626.

17 Lucas Hoffman et al., “Aminoglycoside Antibiotics Induce Bacterial Biofilm Formation”, Nature 436 (2005), 1171–1175.

18 C. von Eiff et al., “Modern Strategies in the Prevention of Implant-Associated Infections”, International Journal of Artificial Organs 28 (2005), 1146–1156.

19 D. Neut et al., “Residual Gentamicin-Release from Antibiotic-Loaded Polymethylmethacrylate Beads After Five Years of Implantation”, Biomaterials 24 (2003), 1829–1831.

20 R. G. Seipelt et al., “The St. Jude ‘Silzone’ Valve: Midterm Results in Treatment of Active Endocarditis”, Annals of Thoracic Surgery 72 (2001), 758–762.

21 G. Cook et al., “Direct Confocal Microscopy Studies of the Bacterial Colonization In Vitro of a Silver-Coated Heart Valve Sewing Cuff”, International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 13 (2000), 169-73.

22 Michael Surette et al., “Quorum Sensing in Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Vibrio harveyi: A New Family of Genes Responsible for Autoinducer Production”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 96 (1999), 1639–1644; Stephan Schauder et al., “The luxS Family of Bacterial Autoinducers: Biosynthesis of a Novel Quorum-Sensing Signal Molecule”, Molecular Microbiology 41 (2001), 463–476.

23 Интервью, взятые автором у Бонни Басслер в ноябре – декабре 2005 г.

24 Karina Xavier, Bonnie Bassler, “Interference with AI-2-Mediated Bacterial Cell-Cell Communication”, Nature 437 (2005), 750–753.

25 E. Barth et al., “In Vitro and In Vivo Comparative Colonization of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis on Orthopaedic Implant Materials”, Biomaterials 10 (1989), 325–328.

26 Andrea Giacometti et al., “RNA III Inhibiting Peptide Inhibits In Vivo Biofilm Formation by Drug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus”, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 47 (2003), 1979–1983.

27 Garth Ehrlich et al., “Engineering Approaches for the Detection and Control of Orthopaedic Biofilm Infections”, Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 437 (2005), 59–66.

28 Philip Stewart, Ross Carlson, “Anti-biofilm Properties of Chitosan-Coated Surfaces”, 232nd national meeting of the American Chemical Society, poster presentation COLL 021, September 10, 2006.

29 Anneta Razatos et al., “Force Measurements Between Bacteria and Polyethylene Glycol Coated Surfaces”, Langmuir 16 (2000), 9155–9158; David Adam, “Bacteria Get the Brush Off", www.nature.com / n ews / 2000 / 001219 / full / news001221-6.html.

30 MedImmune, 2005 Annual Report, Gaithersburg, MD.

31 A. P. Simopoulos, “Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Inflammation and Autoimmune Diseases”, Journal of the American College of Nutrition 21 (2002), 495–505; F. Holguin et al., “Cardiac Autonomic Changes Associated with Fish Oil vs Soy Oi Supplmentation in the Elderly”, Chest 127 (2005), 1102–1107; A. A. Berbert et al., “Supplementation of Fish Oil and Olive Oil in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis”, Nutrition 21 (2005), 131–136.

32 Misha Luyer et al., “Nutritional Stimulation of Cholecystokinin Receptors Inhibits Inflammation via the Vagus Nerve”, Journal of Experimental Medicine 202 (2005), 1023–1029.

33 T. Chen et al., “Mononuclear Cell Response to Enterobacteria and Gram-positive Cell Walls of Normal Intestinal Microbiota in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis and Other Inflammatory Arthritides”, Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 20 (2002), 193–200; Erika Isolauri,

“Probiotics in Human Disease”, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 73 (2001), 1142S – 1146S; Kent Erickson and Neil Hubbard, “Probiotic Immunomodulation in Health and Disease”, Journal of Nutrition 130 (2000X403S – 409S.

34 K. Hatakka et al., “Effects of Probiotic Therapy on the Activity and Activation of Mild Rheumatoid Arthritis – A Pilot Study”, Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 32 (2003), 211–215; Ehud Baharav et al., “Lactobacillus GG Bacteria Ameliorate Arthritis in Lewis Rats”, Journal of Nutrition 134 (2004), 1964–1969; T. M. Chapman et al., “VSL#3 Probiotic Mixture: A Review of Its Use in Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Diseases”, Drugs 66 (2006), 13711387; O. Karimi et al., “Probiotics (VSL#3) in Arthralgia in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease: A Pilot Study”, Drugs Today 41 (2005), 453–459; Philippe Marteau et al., “Protection from Gastrointestinal Diseases with the Use of Probiotics”, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 73 (2001), 430S – 436S.

35 Henri Braat et al., “A Phase 1 Trial with Transgenic Bacteria Expressing Interleukin-10 in Crohn’s Disease”, Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 4 (2006), 754–759.

36 M. Kalliomaki et al., “Probiotics in Primary Prevention of Atopic Disease: A Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial”, Lancet 357 (2001), 1076–1079; M. Kalliomaki et al., “Probiotics and Prevention of Atopic

Disease: 4-year Follow-up of a Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial”, Lancet 361 (2003), 1869–1871.

37 M. Viljanen, “Probiotics in the Treatment of Atopic Eczema/Dermatitis Syndrome in Infants: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial”, Allergy 60 (2005), 494–500.

38 F. Calcinaro et al., “Oral Probiotic Administration Induces Interleukin-10 Production and Prevents Spontaneous Autoimmune Diabetes in the Non-obese Diabetic Mouse”, Diabetologia 48 (2005), 1565–1575; Mihoko Tabuchi et al., “Antidiabetic Effect of Lactobacillus GG in Streptozotocin-lnduced Diabetic Rats”, Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry 67 (2003), 1421–1424; T. Matsuzaki et al., “Prevention of Onset in an Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Model, NOD Mice, by Oral Feeding of Lactobacillus casei”, Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica 105 (1997), 643–649; T. Matsuzaki, “Antidiabetic Effects of an Oral Administration of Lactobacillus casei in a Non-insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus Model Using KK-Ay Mice”, Endocrinology Journal 44 (1997), 357–365.

39 M. Ljungberg et al., “Probiotics for the Prevention of Beta Cell Autoimmunity in Children at Genetic Risk of Type 1 Diabetes – The PRODIA Study”, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1079 (2006), 360–364.

40 Интервью, взятое автором у Мартина Бахманна 16 октября 2006 г.; “Cytos Biotechnology Updates on Development of Allergy Vaccine”, пресс-релиз компании от 12 июня 2006 г.; Cytos Biotechnology, 2006 Th1rd Quarter Report, September 30, 2006.

41 Cytos Biotechnology, “Vaccine Candidate CYT005-AllQbG10 for Allergic Diseases Shows Significant Efficacy in Phase 1 la Study”, пресс-релиз от 14 декабря 2005 г.; Cytos Biotechnology, “Vaccine to Treat Allergic Diseases Shows Significant Long-term Efficacy in House Dust Mite Allergy Patients”, пресс-релиз от 25 апреля 2006 г.; Cytos Biotechnology, 2006 Th1rd Quarter Report, September 30, 2006.

42 Martin Bachmann et al., “The Influence of Antigen Organization on B Cell Responsiveness”, Science 262 (1993), 1448–1451.

43 Tazio Storni et al., “Nonmethylated CG Motifs Packaged into Viruslike Particles Induce Protective Cytotoxic T Cell Responses in the Absence of Systemic Side Effects”, Journal of Immunology 172 (2004), 1777–1785.

44 Y. Sato et al., “Immunostimulatory DNA Sequences Necessary for Effective Intradermal Gene Immunization”, Science 273 (1996), 352354; M. Roman et al., “Immunostimulatory DNA Sequences Function as T Helper-1-Promoting Adjuvants “Nature Medicine 3 (1997), 849–854.

45 David Broide et al., “Immunostimulatory DNA Sequences Inhibit IL-5, Eosinophilic Inflammation and Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Mice”, Journal of Immunology 161 (1998), 7054–7062; David Broide et al., “Systemic Administration of Immunostimulatory DNA Sequences Mediates Reversible Inhibition of TH2 Responses in a Mouse Model of Asthma”, Journal of Clinical Immunology 21 (2001), 175–182; Arash Ronaghy et al., “Immunostimulatory DNA Sequences Influence the Course of Adjuvant Arthritis”, Journal of Immunology 168 (2002), 51–56; Daniel Rachmilewitz et al., “Immunostimulatory DNA Ameliorates Experimental and Spontaneous Murine Colitis”, Gastroenterology 122 (2002), 1428–1441; Omar Duramad et al., “Inhibitors of TLR-9 Act on Multiple Cell Subsets in Mouse and Man In Vitro and Prevent Death In Vivo from Systemic Inflammation”, Journal of Immunology 174 (2004), 5193–5200; Franck Barrat et al., “Nucleic Acids of Mammalian Origin Can Act as Endogenous Ligands for Tolllike Receptors and May Promote Systemic Lupus Erythematosus”, Journal of Experimental Microbiology 202 (2005), 1131–1139.

46 Peter Creticos et al., “Immunotherapy with a Ragweed-toll-like Receptor 9 Agonist Vaccine for Allergic Rhinitis”, New England Journal of Medicine 355 (2006), 1445–1455.

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