Книга: Homo Roboticus? Люди и машины в поисках взаимопонимания

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· #1

Аллегория, использованная Ричардом Докинзом, английским биологом и популяризатором науки, для обозначения слепого естественного отбора. – Прим. пер.

· #2

Американская певица и автор песен в стиле фолк и кантри. – Прим. пер.

· #3

В этом фильме тренер говорит футболистам после проигрыша: «Каждое воскресенье ты отправляешься на стадион, чтобы победить или проиграть. Но смысл в том – сможешь ли ты победить или проиграть как мужчина». – Прим. пер.

· #4

Пол Ревир (1734–1818) – участник Войны за независимость, оповестивший жителей городов в округе Бостона о приближении английских войск. – Прим. пер.

· #5

Мартин Форд. Технологии, которые изменят мир/Пер. с англ. – М.: Манн, Иванов и Фербер, 2014.

· #6

Рэй Курцвейл. Эволюция разума: Как расширение границ нашего разума позволит решить многие мировые проблемы/Пер. с англ. – М.: Эксмо, 2016.

· #7

Джефф Хокинс, Сандра Блейксли. Об интеллекте: Книга о том, как новое понимание человеческого мышления приведет к созданию по-настоящему разумных машин/Пер. с англ. – М.: Вильямс, 2016.

· #8

Система мер администрации президента Ф. Рузвельта в 1933–1939 гг., направленная на ликвидацию последствий Великой депрессии. – Прим. пер.

· #9

Флинтстоуны и Джетсоны – названия американских мультсериалов. Если в первом представлено карикатурное изображение жизни в каменном веке, то во втором – в мире научной фантастики середины XX в. – Прим. пер.

· #10

Shakey (англ.) – шаткий, трясущийся. – Прим. пер.

· #11

Джеймс Дин (1931–1955) – американский актер, идол молодежной культуры. – Прим. пер.

· #12

Джеймс Лайтхилл (1924–1998) – английский ученый в области прикладной математики. – Прим. пер.

· #13

Мерриуэзер Льюис и Уильям Кларк возглавляли первую сухопутную экспедицию через территорию США в 1804–1806 гг. – Прим. пер.

· #14

Мартин Хайдеггер (1889–1976) – один из крупнейших философов XX в. – Прим. пер.

· #15

Сенатор-республиканец крайне правых взглядов, с именем которого связано реакционное течение в политической жизни США в 1950-х гг., известное как «маккартизм». – Прим. пер.

· #16

Полное название «Доктор Стрейнджлав, или Как я перестал бояться и полюбил атомную бомбу» – антимилитаристский кинофильм 1964 г. режиссера Стэнли Кубрика. – Прим. пер.

· #17

Американский телеведущий и журналист. – Прим. пер.

· #18

Руб Голдберг – американский карикатурист, писатель и изобретатель. Известен серией карикатур, изображающих чрезвычайно сложные и громоздкие устройства для выполнения очень простых функций. – Прим. пер.

· #1

Ссылки, в которых не указываются авторы, взяты из интервью автора книги.

Эта фраза принадлежит Ричарду Столлману, известному программисту, который первым предложил концепцию свободного программного обеспечения.

· #2

John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry (New York: Viking, 2005), 282.

· #3

Moshe Y. Vardi, «The Consequences of Machine Intelligence,» Atlantic, October 25, 2012, http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/10/the-consequences-of-machine-intelligence/264066.

· #4

Frank Levy and Richard J. Murnane, «Dancing with Robots: Human Skills for Computerized Work,» http://content.thirdway.org/publications/714/Dancing-With-Robots.pdf.

· #5

J. C. R. Licklider, «Man-Computer Symbiosis,» IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics HFE-1 (March 1960): 4–11, http://groups.csail.mit.edu/medg/people/psz/Licklider.html.

· #6

John Markoff, «Can Machines Think? Humans Match Wits,» New York Times, November 9, 1991, http://www.nytimes.com/1991/11/09/us/can-machines-think-humans-match-wits.html.

· #7

Jonathan Grudin, «AI and HCI: Two Fields Divided by a Common Focus,» AI Magazine, Winter 2009, http://research.microsoft.com/apps/pubs/default.aspx?id=138574.

· #8

John McCarthy, book review of B. P. Bloomfield, The Question of Artificial Intelligence: Philosophical and Sociological Perspectives, in Annals of the History of Computing 10, no. 3 (1988): 224–229.

· #9

Kevin Kelly, Out of Control: The Rise of Neo-Biological Civilization (New York: Perseus, 1994), 33–34.

· #10

Jerry Kaplan, presentation at Stanford University Probabilistic AI lunch meeting, May 6, 2013.

· #11

Defense Science Board, «The Role of Autonomy in DoD Systems,» U. S. Department of Defense, July 2012, http://www.acq.osd.mil/dsb/reports/AutonomyReport.pdf.

· #12

James R. Hagerty, «A Roboticist's Trip from Mines to the Moon,» Wall Street Journal, July 2, 2011, http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702304569504576405671616928518.

· #13

John Markoff, «The Creature That Lives in Pittsburgh,» New York Times, April 21, 1991, http://www.nytimes.com/1991/04/21/business/the-creature-that-lives-in-pittsburgh.html.

· #14

John Markoff, «Google Cars Drive Themselves, in Traffic,» New York Times, October 9, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/10/science/10google.html?pagewanted=all.

· #15

«Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy Vehicles,» National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2012, http://www.nhtsa.gov/Laws+&+Regulations/Electronic+Stability+Control+(ESC).

· #16

John Markoff, «Police, Pedestrians and the Social Ballet of Merging: The Real Challenges for Self-Driving Cars,» New York Times, May 29, 2014, http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/05/29/police-bicyclists-and-pedestrians-the-real-challenges-for-selfdriving-cars/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_r=0.

· #17

Lawrence D. Burns, William C. Jordan, and Bonnie A. Scarborough, «Transforming Personal Mobility,» The Earth Institute, Columbia University, January 27, 2013, http://sustainablemobility.ei.columbia.edu/files/2012/12/Transforming-Personal-Mobility-Jan-27-20132.pdf.

· #18

William Grimes, «Philippa Foot, Renowned Philosopher, Dies at 90,» New York Times, October 9, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/10/us/10foot.html.

· #19

«Transportation and Material Moving Occupations,» Occupational Outlook Handbook, Bureau of Labor Statistics, http://www.bls.gov/ooh/transportation-and-material-moving/home.htm.

· #20

Vannevar Bush, «As We May Think,» Atlantic Monthly, July 1, 1945, http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1945/07/as-we-may-think/303881.

· #21

Peter Norvig, keynote address, NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts Conference, Stanford, California, February 5, 2014.

· #22

John Markoff, «Skilled Work, without the Worker,» New York Times, August 18, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/19/business/new-wave-of-adept-robots-is-changing-global-industry.html.

· #23

Там же.

· #24

Norbert Wiener, Collected Works with Commentaries, ed. Pesi Masani (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1985), 272.

· #25

«Father of Cybernetics Norbert Wiener's Letter to UAW President Walter Reuther,» August 13, 1949, https://libcom.org/history/father-cybernetics-norbert-wieners-letter-uaw-presidentwalter-reuther.

· #26

Flo Conway and Jim Siegelman, Dark Hero of the Information Age: In Search of Norbert Wiener, The Father of Cybernetics, Kindle ed. (New York: Basic Books, 2009), Kindle location 246.

· #27

Anthony Carew, Walter Reuther (Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1993).

· #28

Conway, Dark Hero of the Information Age, 246.

· #29

Stephen Meyer, «'An Economic „Frankenstein“': UAW Workers' Response to Automation at the Ford Brook Park Plant in the 1950s,» Michigan Historical Review 28 (2002): 63–90.

· #30

«Wiener Denounces Devices 'For War': M. I. T. Mathematician Rebuffs Bid to Harvard Symposium of Calculating Machinery,» New York Times, January 9, 1947.

· #31

Norbert Wiener, «A Scientist Rebels,» Atlantic Monthly, January 1947.

· #32

John Markoff, «In 1949, He Imagined an Age of Robots,» New York Times, May 20, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/21/science/mit-scholars-1949-essay-on-machine-age-is-found.html?pagewanted=all.

· #33

Там же.

· #34

Там же.

· #35

Carew, Walter Reuther, 144.

· #36

The Ad Hoc Committee on the Triple Revolution, «The Triple Revolution,» Liberation, April 1964, http://www.educationanddemocracy.org/FSCfles/C_CC2a_TripleRevolution.htm.

· #37

Mark D. Stahlman, «Wiener's Genius Project» (invited paper, IEEE 2014 Conference on Norbert Wiener in the 21st Century, 2014).

· #38

Steve J. Heims, John von Neumann and Norbert Wiener: From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1980), 343.

· #39

Norbert Wiener, God and Golem, Inc.: A Comment on Certain Points where Cybernetics Impinges on Religion (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1964), 29.

· #40

«Machines Smarter Than Men? Interview with Dr. Norbert Wiener, Noted Scientist,» U. S. News & World Report, February 24, 1964, http://21stcenturywiener.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Machines-Smarter-Than-Man-Interview-with-Norbert-Wiener.pdf.

· #41

Defense Science Board, «The Role of Autonomy in DoD Systems,» U. S. Department of Defense, July 2012, http://www.acq.osd.mil/dsb/reports/AutonomyReport.pdf.

· #42

John Maynard Keynes, «Economic Possibilities for Our Grandchildren,» in Essays in Persuasion (New York: W. W. Norton & Co, 1963), 358–373.

· #43

Jeremy Rifkin, The End of Work: The Decline of the Global Labor Force and the Dawn of the Post-Market Era (New York: Putnam, 1995), xvii.

· #44

John Markoff, «Armies of Expensive Lawyers, Replaced by Cheaper Software,» New York Times, March 4, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/05/science/05legal.html?pagewanted=all.

· #45

Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee, Race Against the Machine (Lexington, MA: Digital Frontier Press, 2011).

· #46

Paul Beaudry, David A. Green, and Ben Sand, «The Great Reversal in the Demand for Skill and Cognitive Tasks,» NBER Working Paper No. 18901, National Bureau of Economic Research, March 2013, http://www.economics.ubc.ca/fles/2013/05/pdf_paper_paul-beaudry-great-reversal.pdf.

· #47

Там же.

· #48

James Manyika, Susan Lund, Byron Auguste, and Sreenivas Ramaswamy, «Help Wanted: The Future of Work in Advanced Economies,» McKinsey Global Institute, March 2012, http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/employment_and_growth/future_of_work_in_advanced_economies.

· #49

Robin Harding, «US Has Lost 2M Clerical Jobs since 2007,» Financial Times, April 1, 2013, http://www.ft.com/intl/cm/s/0/37666e6c-9ae5-11e2-b982-00144feabdc0.html#axzz3V2czZqsP.

· #50

Melody Johnson, "Right-Wing Media Attack Obama for Accurate Remarks on Business' [sic] Investment in Automated Machines," MediaMatters for America, June 15, 2011, http://mediamatters.org/research/2011/06/15/right-wing-media-attack-obama-for-accurate-rema/180602.

· #51

«Are ATMs Stealing Jobs?» Economist, June 15, 2011, http://www.economist.com/blogs/democracyinamerica/2011/06/technology-and-unemployment.

· #52

Ben Sumers, «Bank Teller Case Study» (unpublished, 2012).

· #53

Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee, The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 2014), 127.

· #54

Jaron Lanier, Who Owns the Future? Kindle ed. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2014), Kindle location 222–230.

· #55

Tim O'Reilly, Google+, January 9, 2014, https://plus.google.com/+TimOReilly/posts/F85gaWoBp3Z.

· #56

Matthieu P?lissi? du Rausas, James Manyika, Eric Hazan, Jacques Bughin, Michael Chui, and R?mi Said, «Internet Matters: The Net's Sweeping Impact on Growth, Jobs, and Prosperity,» McKinsey Global Institute, May 2011, http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/high_tech_telecoms_internet/internet_matters.

· #57

«The Last Kodak Moment?» Economist, January 12, 2012, http://www.economist.com/node/21542796.

· #58

Ray Kurzweil, The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology (New York: Penguin Books, 2006).

· #59

«The Coming Technological Singularity: How to Survive in the Post-Human Era,» VISION-21 Symposium, NASA Lewis Research Center, NASA technical reports, NASA CP-10129, March 30–31, 1993, https://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/faculty/vinge/misc/singularity.html.

· #60

Robert Geraci, Apocalyptic AI: Visions of Heaven in Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, and Virtual Reality, reprint edition (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012).

· #61

Moshe Y. Vardi, «The Consequences of Machine Intelligence,» Atlantic, October 25, 2012, http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/10/the-consequences-of-machine-intelligence/264066.

· #62

Moshe Y. Vardi, «If Machines Are Capable of Doing Almost Any Work Humans Can Do, What Will Humans Do?» (white paper presented at Innovation 4 Jobs Conference, Menlo Park, California, 2013).

· #63

Телефонное интервью автора с Моше Варди, 9 мая 2013 г.

· #64

«IFR: Robots Improve Manufacturing Success & Create Jobs,» press release, International Federation of Robotics, February 28, 2013, http://www.ifr.org/news/ifr-press-release/ifr-robots-improve-manufacturing-success-create-jobs-469.

· #65

Robert J. Gordon, «Is US Economic Growth Over? Faltering Innovation Confronts the Six Headwinds,» Policy Insight 63 (September 2012), Centre for Economic Policy Research, http://www.cepr.org/sites/default/fles/policy_insights/PolicyInsight63.pdf.

· #66

Robert J. Gordon, «The Demise of U. S. Economic Growth: Restatement, Rebuttal, and Reflections,» NBER Working Paper No. 19895, February 2014, National Bureau of Economic Research, http://www.nber.org/papers/w19895.

· #67

«Robert Gordon, Erik Brynjolfsson Debate the Future of Work at TED 2013,» TED Blog video, April 23, 2013, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ofWK5WglgiI.

· #68

Robert J. Gordon, «Why Innovation Won't Save Us,» Wall Street Journal, December 21, 2012, http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424127887324461604578191781756437940.

· #69

Gordon, «The Demise of U. S. Economic Growth.»

· #70

Craig Trudell, Yukiko Hagiwara, and Jie Ma, «Humans Replacing Robots Herald Toyota's Vision of Future,» BloombergBusiness, April 7, 2014, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-04-06/humans-replacing-robots-herald-toyota-s-vision-of-future.html.

· #71

Stewart Brand, «We Are As Gods,» Whole Earth Catalog, Fall 1968, http://www.wholeearth.com/issue/1010/article/195/we.are.as.gods.

· #72

Amir Efrati, «Google Beat Facebook for DeepMind, Creates Ethics Board,» Information, January 27, 2014, https://www.theinformation.com/google-beat-facebook-for-deepmind-createsethics-board.

· #73

«Foxconn Chairman Likens His Workforce to Animals,» WantChina Times, January 19, 2012, http://www.wantchinatimes.com/news-subclass-cnt.aspx?id=20120119000111&cid=1102.

· #74

«World Population Ageing 2013,» Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division, (New York: United Nations, 2013) http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/publications/pdf/ageing/WorldPopulationAgeing2013.pdf.

· #75

«Robot Caregivers Help the Elderly,» Digital Agenda for Europe, A Europe 2020 Initiative, May 5, 2014, http://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/news/robot-caregivers-help-elderly.

· #76

Jeffrey S. Passel and D'vera Cohn, «U. S. Population Projections: 2005–2050,» Social & Demographic Trends, Pew Research Center, February 11, 2008, http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2008/02/11/us-population-projections-2005-2050.

· #77

«Baby Boomers Retire,» Pew Research Center, December 29, 2010 http://www.pewresearch.org/daily-number/baby-boomers-retire.

· #78

David C. Brock, «How William Shockley's Robot Dream Helped Launch Silicon Valley,» IEEE Spectrum, November 29, 2013, http://spectrum.ieee.org/at-work/innovation/how-william-shockleys-robot-dream-helped-launch-silicon-valley.

· #79

David C. Brock, «From Automation to Silicon Valley: The Automation Movement of the 1950s, Arnold Beckman, and William Shockley,» History and Technology 28, no. 4 (2012), http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07341512.2012.756236#.VQTPKCbHi_A.

· #80

Там же.

· #81

John Markoff, «Robotic Vehicles Race, but Innovation Wins,» New York Times, September 14, 2005.

· #82

John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry (New York: Viking, 2005).

· #83

Pamela McCorduck, Machines Who Think: A Personal Inquiry into the History and Prospects of Artificial Intelligence, 2nd ed. (Natick, MA: A K Peters/CRC Press, 2004), 268.

· #84

Там же, 273.

· #85

Brad Darrach, "Meet Shaky [sic], the First Electronic Person: The Fascinating and Fearsome Reality of a Machine with a Mind of Its Own," Life, November 1970.

· #86

Charles A. Rosen, «Robots, Productivity, and Quality,» SRI, Artificial Intelligence Center, technical note no. 66, May 1972.

· #87

Nils J. Nilsson, The Quest for Artificial Intelligence, 2010, 77, web version, http://ai.stanford.edu/~nilsson/QAI/qai.pdf.

· #88

Margaret Boden, Mind as Machine (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2006), 381.

· #89

AI@50, Dartmouth College Artificial Intelligence Conference, July 13–15, 2006.

· #90

Boden, Mind as Machine, 381.

· #91

John McCarthy, book review of B. P. Bloomfield, The Question of Artificial Intelligence: Philosophical and Sociological Perspectives, in Annals of the History of Computing 10, no. 3 (1998).

· #92

Там же.

· #93

Nilsson, The Quest for Artificial Intelligence, 77.

· #94

AI@50, Dartmouth College Artificial Intelligence Conference, July 13–15, 2006.

· #95

Интервью с Джоном Маккарти, Стэнфордский университет, 19 июля 2001 г.

· #96

Steven Levy, Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution (New York: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1984).

· #97

Интервью с Джоном Маккарти, Стэнфордский университет, 19 июля 2001 г.

· #98

Raj Reddy, «Celebration of John McCarthy's Accomplishments,» Stanford University, March 25, 2012, YouTube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J_QGryGFb2o.

· #99

Arthur L. Norberg, «An Interview with Bruce G. Buchanan,» June 11–12, 1991, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, http://conservancy.umn.edu/bitstream/107165/1/oh230bb.pdf.

· #100

Hans Moravec, Mind Children: The Future of Robot and Human Intelligence (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988), 20.

· #101

John McCarthy, «A Proposal for the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence,» August 31, 1955, http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/history/dartmouth/dartmouth.html.

· #102

William J. Broad, «Computer Scientists Stymied in Their Quest to Match Human Vision,» New York Times, September 25, 1984, http://www.nytimes.com/1984/09/25/science/computer-scientists-stymied-in-their-quest-to-match-human-vision.html.

· #103

John McCarthy, «Programs with Common Sense,» Stanford University, 1959, http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/mcc59.pdf.

· #104

«The Dynabook of Alan Kay,» History of Computers, http://historycomputer.com/ModernComputer/Personal/Dynabook.html.

· #105

Robert Geraci, Apocalyptic AI: Visions of Heaven in Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, and Virtual Reality, reprint edition (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012), 2.

· #106

John Markoff, «John McCarthy, 84, Dies; Computer Design Pioneer,» New York Times,http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/26/science/26mccarthy.html?pagewanted=all.

· #107

Hans Moravec, «Today's Computers, Intelligent Machines and Our Future,» Stanford University, July 21, 1976, http://www.frc.ri.cmu.edu/~hpm/project.archive/general.articles/1978/analog.1978.html.

· #108

Hans Moravec, «The Role of Raw Power in Intelligence,» May 12, 1976, http://www.frc.ri.cmu.edu/~hpm/project.archive/general.articles/1975/Raw.Power.html.

· #109

Moravec, «Today's Computers, Intelligent Machines and Our Future.»

· #110

Markoff, What the Dormouse Said.

· #111

Les Earnest, «Stanford Cart,» December 2012, http://www.stanford.edu/~learnest/cart.htm.

· #112

Там же.

· #113

Sheldon Breiner, «The Background Behind the First Airport Gun Detector,» http://breiner.com/sheldon/papers/First%20Gun%20Detector%20for%20Airport-Public%20Security.pdf.

· #114

Robert Reinhold, «Reasoning Ability of Experts Is Codified for Computer Use,» New York Times, March 29, 1984.

· #115

Jonathan Grudin, «AI and HCI: Two Fields Divided by a Common Focus,» AI Magazine, Winter 2009, http://research.microsoft.com/apps/pubs/default.aspx?id=138574.

· #116

Daniel Crevier, AI: The Tumultuous History of the Search for Artificial Intelligence (New York: Basic Books, 1993), 203.

· #117

Edward Edelson, «Expert Systems – Computers That Think Like People,» Popular Science, September 1982, 58.

· #118

Там же.

· #119

Там же.

· #120

United Press International, «New Navy Device Learns by Doing,» New York Times, July 7, 1958.

· #121

John Markoff, «Researchers Announce Breakthrough in Content Recognition Software,» New York Times, November 17, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/18/science/researchers-announce-breakthrough-in-content-recognition-software.html.

· #122

Alex Rubinsteyn and Sergey Feldman, «NIPS and the Zuckerberg Visit,» Explain My Data, December 11, 2013 http://blog.explainmydata.com/2013/12/nips-and-zuckerberg-visit.html.

· #123

Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline, «Cyborgs and Space,» Astronautics, September, 1960, http://partners.nytimes.com/library/cyber/surf/022697surf-cyborg.html.

· #124

David A. Mindell, Digital Apollo: Human and Machine in Spaceflight, Kindle ed. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2011), Kindle location 1850.

· #125

Там же, Kindle location 352–364.

· #126

Craig Covault, «Space Leaders Work to Replace Lunar Base with Manned Asteroid Missions,» Aviation Week & Space Technology, January 19, 2008, http://www.spaceflightnow.com/news/n0801/18avweek.

· #127

Предоставлено Эдвардом Фейгенбаумом.

· #128

Morten Thanning Vendelo, «From Artifcial Intelligence to Human Computer Interaction – An Interview with Terry Winograd,» Association for Information Systems, SIGSEMIS Bulletin 2, no. 3 & 4 (2005), http://www.researchgate.net/publication/236015807_From_Artifcial_Intelligence_to_Human_Computer_Interaction_-_an_interview_with_Terry_Winograd.

· #129

Terry Winograd lecture, «Filling in the 'H' in HCI,» mediaX 2013 Conference, January 8, 2013.

· #130

John Markoff, «Joseph Weizenbaum, Famed Programmer, Is Dead at 85,» New York Times, March 13, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/13/world/europe/13weizenbaum.html?_r=0.

· #131

David W. Dunlap, «Looking Back: 1978 – 'Farewell, Etaoin Shrdlu,'» Times Insider, New York Times, November 13, 2014.

· #132

Terry Winograd, «Procedures as a Representation for Data in a Computer Program for Understanding Natural Language,» MIT AI Technical Report 235, February 1971, 38–39, http://hci.stanford.edu/winograd/shrdlu/AITR-235.pdf.

· #133

Hubert Dreyfus, «Alchemy and Artificial Intelligence,» Rand Corporation, 1965, http://www.rand.org/pubs/papers/P3244.html.

· #134

Hubert Dreyfus, «Why Heideggerian AI Failed and How Fixing It Would Require Making It More Heideggerian,» http://leidlmair.at/doc/WhyHeideggerianAIFailed.pdf.

· #135

Dreyfus, «Alchemy and Artificial Intelligence.»

· #136

Seymour Papert, «The Artificial Intelligence of Hubert L. Dreyfus: A Budget of Fallacies,» Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Project Mac, Memo. No. 154, January 1968, https://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/6084.

· #137

Vendelo, «From Artificial Intelligence to Human Computer Interaction.»

· #138

Roger C. Schank and Robert P. Abelson, Scripts, Plans, Goals, and Understanding: An Inquiry into Human Knowledge Structures, Artificial Intelligence Series (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1977).

· #139

Searle presentation before CS22 Introduction to the Philosophy and History of Artificial Intelligence, Stanford, October 25, 2013.

· #140

Arthur L. Norberg, «An Interview with Terry Allen Winograd,» December 11, 1991, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, http://conservancy.umn.edu/bitstream/107717/1/oh237taw.

· #141

Sergey Brin, Rajeev Motwani, Lawrence Page, and Terry Winograd, «What Can You Do with a Web in Your Pocket?» IEEE Data Engineering Bulletin 21, no. 2 (1998): 37–47, http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.36.2806&rep=rep1&type=pdf.

· #142

Terry Winograd, «Shifting Viewpoints: Artificial Intelligence and Human-Computer Interaction,» Artificial Intelligence 170 (2006): 1256–1258, http://hci.stanford.edu/winograd/papers/ai-hci.pdf.

· #143

Jeffrey Pfeffer and Robert I. Sutton, «Knowing 'What' to Do Is Not Enough: Turning Knowledge into Action,» California Management Review 42, no. 1 (1999).

· #144

Ben Shneiderman, «List of Influences: Ben Shneiderman,» eagereyes, December 16, 2011, http://eagereyes.org/influences/ben-shneiderman.

· #145

Tandy Trower, «A Parting Salute to Cliff Nass – Social Interface Pioneer and Good Friend,» Hoaloha Robotics, November 19, 2013, http://blog.hoaloharobotics.com/2013/11/19/a-parting-salute-to-cliff-nass-social-interface-pioneer-and-good-friend.

· #146

Tandy Trower, «Bob and Beyond: A Microsoft Insider Remembers,» Technologizer, March 29, 2010, http://www.technologizer.com/2010/03/29/bob-and-beyond-a-microsoft-insider-remembers.

· #147

Nicholas Negroponte, Being Digital (New York: Vintage, 1996), 101.

· #148

Ben Shneiderman and Pattie Maes, «Direct Manipulation vs. Interface Agents: Excerpts from Debates at IUI 97 and CHI 97,» Association for Computing Machinery Interactions, November-December 1997, http://ritter.ist.psu.edu/misc/dirk-fles/Papers/HRI-papers/User%20interface%20design%20issues/Direct%20manipulation%20vs.%20interface%20agents.pdf.

· #149

Там же.

· #150

Rodney Brooks, Flesh and Machines: How Robots Will Change Us (New York: Pantheon, 2002), 28.

· #151

Там же, 29.

· #152

Там же, 31.

· #153

Rodney Brooks, «Elephants Don't Play Chess,» Robotics and Autonomous Systems 6 (1990): 3–15, people.csail.mit.edu/brooks/papers/elephants.ps.Z.

· #154

Там же.

· #155

Brooks, Flesh and Machines, 31.

· #156

Steven Levy, Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution (New York: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1984), 132.

· #157

R. H. MacMillan, Automation: Friend or Foe, (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1956), 1.

· #158

Levy, Hackers, 130.

· #159

Lee Felsenstein, «The Golemic Approach,» LeeFelsenstein.com, http://www.leefelsenstein.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Golemic_Approach_MS.pdf.

· #160

Там же, 4.

· #161

Evgeny Morozov, «Making It,» New Yorker, January 13, 2014, http://www.newyorker.com/arts/critics/atlarge/2014/01/13/140113crat_atlarge_morozov?printable=true&currentPage=all.

· #162

«Lee Felsenstein and the Convivial Computer,» Convivial Tools, July 23, 2007, http://www.conviviality.ouvaton.org/spip.php?article39.

· #163

Lee Felsenstein, «The Tom Swift Terminal; or, A Convivial Cybernetic Device,» LeeFelsenstein.com, http://www.leefelsenstein.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/TST_scan_150.pdf.

· #164

Dennis Liu, «Office 2010: The Movie,» YouTube, July 9, 2009, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VUawhjxLS2I.

· #165

Steven Sinofsky, «PM at Microsoft,» Steven Sinofsky's Microsoft TechTalk, December 16, 2005, http://blogs.msdn.com/b/techtalk/archive/2005/12/16/504872.aspx.

· #166

«The Lumiere project: The Origins and Science Behind Microsoft's Office Assistant,» Robotics Zeitgeist, 2009, http://robotzeitgeist.com/2009/08/lumiere-project-origins-and-science.html.

· #167

Lexi Krock, «The Final Eight Minutes,» Nova, WGBH, October 17, 2006, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/space/fnal-eight-minutes.html.

· #168

Jessica Marshall, «Victory for Crowdsourced Biomolecule Design,» Nature, January 22, 2012, http://www.nature.com/news/victory-for-crowdsourced-biomolecule-design-1.9872.

· #169

Sherry Turkle, Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other (New York: Basic Books, 2011), 101.

· #170

Miriam Steffens, «Slaves That Are Reflections of Ourselves,» Sydney Morning Herald, November 19, 2012, http://www.smh.com.au/small-business/growing/slaves-that-are-reflections-of-ourselves-20121118-29k63.html.

· #171

Daniel Crevier, AI: The Tumultuous History of the Search for Artificial Intelligence (New York: Basic Books, 1993), 58.

· #172

Ken Jennings, «My Puny Human Brain,» Slate, February 16, 2011.

· #173

Stuart Nathan, «Marc Raibert of Boston Dynamics,» Engineer, February, 22, 2010, http://www.theengineer.co.uk/in-depth/interviews/marc-raibert-of-boston-dynamics/1001065.article#ixzz2pevPQoYI.

· #174

Public Information Office, «Fact Sheet on 'Simon,'» Columbia University, May 18, 1950, http://www.blinkenlights.com/classiccmp/berkeley/simonfaq.html.

· #175

Ivan E. Sutherland, letter to Grey Walter, November 10, 1957, http://cyberneticzoo.com/cyberneticanimals/1956-mechanical-animalwillian-robert-bert-sutherland-ivan-e-sutherland-american.

· #176

Daniel Lovering, «Radioactive Robot: The Machines That Cleaned Up Three Mile Island,» Scientific American, March 27, 2009, http://www.scientifcamerican.com/article/three-mile-island-robots.

· #177

John Markoff, «The Creature That Lives in Pittsburgh,» New York Times, April 21, 1991, http://www.nytimes.com/1991/04/21/business/the-creature-that-lives-in-pittsburgh.html?src=pm&pagewanted=3&pagewanted=all.

· #178

Marvin Minsky, «Telepresence: A Manifesto,» IEEE Spectrum, August 31, 2010, http://spectrum.ieee.org/robotics/artifcialintelligence/telepresence-a-manifesto.

· #179

Там же.

· #180

Gill A. Pratt, «Robot to the Rescue,» Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, December 3, 2013, http://thebulletin.org/robot-rescue.

· #181

«2013 DARPA Robotic Challenge Trials Overview,» Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, http://archive.darpa.mil/roboticschallengetrialsarchive.

· #182

Singularity Hub, «Industrial Perception Robot Arm Box Toss,» YouTube, April 17, 2013, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IXxU4sL6hq0.

· #183

«Guidelines for Scientific Research,» Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, March 2011, http://www.i.u-tokyo.ac.jp/edu/others/pdf/guideline_en.pdf.

· #184

Charlie Rose, «Amazon Unveils Futuristic Plan: Delivery by Drone,» 60 Minutes Overtime, December 1, 2013, http://www.cbsnews.com/news/amazon-unveils-futuristic-plan-delivery-by-drone.

· #185

DARPAtv, «Darpa's Pet-Proto Robot Navigates Obstacles,» Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, October 24, 2012, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FFGfq0pRczY.

· #186

Hans Moravec, Mind Children: The Future of Robot and Human Intelligence (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988), 15.

· #187

Eric Berger and Keenan Wyrobek, «PR1 Robot Cleans a Room,» Salisbury Robotics Lab, Stanford University, 2007, YouTube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jJ4XtyMoxIA.

· #188

«The Hopkins Beast,» Field Robotics Center, 1960, http://www.frc.ri.cmu.edu/~hpm/talks/revo.slides/1960.html.

· #189

John Markoff, «A Free and Simple Computer Link,» New York Times, December 8, 1993, http://www.nytimes.com/1993/12/08/business/business-technology-a-free-and-simple-computer-link.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm.

· #190

Danielle Newnham, Mad Men of Mobile: Leading Entrepreneurs and Innovators Share Their Stories, from SIRI to SHAZAM, Kindle ed. (Seattle: CreateSpace, 2013), Kindle location 129.

· #191

Там же, Kindle location 137–139.

· #192

John Sculley and John A. Byrne, Odyssey: Pepsi to Apple: A Journey of Adventure, Ideas, and the Future (New York: HarperCollins, 1987).

· #193

David Greelish, «An Interview with Computing Pioneer Alan Kay,» Time, April 2, 2013, http://techland.time.com/2013/04/02/an-interview-with-computing-pioneer-alan-kay.

· #194

Gordon E. Moore, «Cramming More Components onto Integrated Circuits,» Electronics 38, no. 8 (1965), 114–117.

· #195

Paul Pangaro, «'Getting Started' Guide to Cybernetics,» Pangaro.com, http://www.pangaro.com/defnition-cybernetics.html.

· #196

J. J. O'Connor and E. F. Robertson, «Andrew Gordon Speedie Pask,» School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, Scotland, http://turnbull.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Pask.html.

· #197

Claire Cain Miller, «Technology, Aided by Recession, Is Polarizing the Work World,» New York Times, July 22, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/23/upshot/how-technology-aided-by-recession-is-transforming-the-work-world.html?rref=upshot.

· #198

Bureau of Labor Statistics, «Occupational Employment Projections to 2022,» December 2013, http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2013/article/occupational-employment-projections-to-2022.htm.

· #199

Zeynep Tufekci, «Failing the Third Machine Age: When Robots Come for Grandma,» Medium, July 22, 2014, https://medium.com/message/failing-the-third-machine-age-1883e647ba74.

· #200

Louise Aronson, «The Future of Robot Caregivers,» New York Times, July 19, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/20/opinion/sunday/the-future-of-robot-caregivers.html.

· #201

Ken Goldberg, «Robots with Their Heads in the Clouds,» Aspen Ideas Festival 2014, Medium, August 25, 2014, https://medium.com/aspen-ideas/robots-with-their-heads-in-the-clouds-e88ac44def8a.

· #202

«Asimov's Three Laws of Robotics + the Zeroth Law,» March 1942, Jeremy Norman's HistoryofInformation.com, http://www.historyofnformation.com/expanded.php?id=4108.

· #203

Defense Science Board, «The Role of Autonomy in DoD Systems,» U. S. Department of Defense, July 2012, http://www.acq.osd.mil/dsb/reports/AutonomyReport.pdf.

· #204

John Markoff, «Already Anticipating 'Terminator' Ethics,» New York Times, November 24, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/24/science/already-anticipating-terminator-ethics.html.

· #205

Bill Joy, «Why the Future Doesn't Need Us,» Wired, April 2000, http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/8.04/joy.html.

· #206

Eric Horvitz and Bart Selman, «Interim Report from the Panel Chairs,» AAAI Presidential Panel on Long-Term AI Futures, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, August 2009, http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/people/horvitz/note_from_AAAI_panel_chairs.pdf.

· #207

Mark Prigg, «Google Sets Up Artificial Intelligence Ethics Board to Curb the Rise of the Robots,» Daily Mail, January 29, 2014, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2548355/Google-setsartificial-intelligence-ethics-board-curb-rise-robots.html.

· #208

Blade Runner, directed by Ridley Scott (1982; Burbank, CA: Warner Bros.).

· #209

Leon Neyfakh, «Do Our Brains Pay a Price for GPS?» Boston Globe, August 18, 2013, http://www.bostonglobe.com/ideas/2013/08/17/our-brains-pay-price-for-gps/d2Tnvo4hiWjuybid5UhQVO/story.html.

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