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1.United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2014). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision Highlights. New York: United Nations.

2.Greenhalgh, Emily (2015). 2014 State of the Climate: Earths Surface Temperature // National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. www.climate.gov.

3.Internet Live Stats (2015). Internet Users. www.internetlivestats.com/internet-users.

4.Pew Research Center (2010, November 9). Public Support for Increased Trade, except with South Korea and China. Fewer See Benefits from Free Trade Agreements // Pew Research Center Global Attitudes and Trends. www.people-press.org.

5.Rasmus, Jack (2015, September 21). Global Corporate Cash Piles Exceed $ 15 Trillion // TelesurTV. www.telesurtv.net/english/opinion; Dolan, Mike (2014). Analysis: Corporate Cash May Not All Flow Back with Recovery Reuters. www.reuters.com.

6.Bost, Callie and Lu Wang (2014, October 6). S&P 50Companies Spend Almost All Profits on Buybacks // Bloomberg. www.bloomberg.com.

7.Da Vinci, Leonardo (14521519) (1955). Chapter XXIX: Precepts of the Painter of the Error Made by Those Who Practice without Science // In The Notebooks of Leonardo Da Vinci, edited by E.MacCurdy. New York: George Braziller.

8.Machiavelli, Niccolo (14691527). Discourses on the First Ten Books of Titus Livius. Third Book. Chapter XLIII: Natives of the Same Country Preserve for All Time the Same Characteristics. In The Prince and the Discourses, edited by C. E.Detmold, M.Lerner, L.Ricci and E.Vincent. N. Y., The Modern Library, 1940.

9.Pettersson, Therese and Peter Wallensteen (2015). Armed Conflicts, 19462014 // Journal of Peace Research 52(4): 536550.

10.Huizinga, Johan (1959). The Problem of the Renaissance //In Men and Ideas: History, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance (Essays by Johan Huizinga). New York: Meridian Books.

11.Brotton, Jerry (2002). The Renaissance Bazaar: From the Silk Road to Michelangelo. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

12.Hale, J.R. (1985). War and Society in Renaissance Europe, 14501620. London: Fontana Press.

13.Asian Art Museum (2015). The Invention of Woodblock Printing in the Tang (618906) and Song (9601279) Dynasties. education.asianart.org.

1.

1.Cardano, Girolamo (15011576) (1931). Chapter XLI: Concerning Natural Though Rare Circumstances of My Own Life // In The Book of My Life (DeVita Propria Liber), edited by J.Stoner. London: J.M.Dent.

2.Brotton, Jerry (2012). A History of the World in Twelve Maps. London: Allen Lane.

3.Goldin, Ian (2016). Development: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

4.UNDP (2010). The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development. Human Development Report 2010. New York: United Nations. . 6.

5.Economist Intelligence Unit (2016). Democracy Index 2015: Democracy in an Age of Anxiety. London: The Economist. www.eiu.com/democracy2015.

6.World Trade Organization (2015). Members and Observers. www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/org6_e.htm.

7.The Economist (2015, August 8). Bread and Circuses // The Economist. www.economist.com.

8.Rhodes, Neil and Jonathan Sawday (2000). The Renaissance Computer: Knowledge Technology in the First Age of Print. London: Routledge, p. 1; Brotton, Jerry (2012). A History of the World in Twelve Maps. London: Allen Lane.

9.Brant, Sebastian (14581521) (1498). Varia Carmina. Basel: Johann Bergmann, de Olpe. f. lVIII r-v.

10.Eisenstein, ElizabethL. (1980). The Printing Press as an Agent of Change. Vol. 1. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. . 46.

11.Foresti, Giacomo Filippo (14341520) (1492). Supplementum Chronicharum. Venice: Bernardinum ricium de Nouaria.

12.Ruggiero, Guido (2002). A Companion to the Worlds of the Renaissance. Oxford: Blackwell. P. 335.

13.Ibid. P. 95.

14.Ibid. . 183.

15.Whitlock, Keith (2000). The Renaissance in Europe: A Reader. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. . 301.

16.Ibid. . 302.

17.Man, John (2002). The Gutenberg Revolution: The Story of a Genius and an Invention That Changed the World. London: Review. . 224.

18.World Bank Databank (2014). Internet Users (Per 100 People) // World Development Indicators. data.worldbank.org.

19.World Bank Databank (2015). Mobile Cellular Subscriptions (Per 100 People) //World Development Indicators. data.worldbank.org.

20.International Telecommunications Union (2014). Key ICT Indicators for Developed and Developing Countries and the World // www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Documents/statistics.

21.Ibid; International Telecommunications Union (2014). Mobile Broadband Is Counted as 3G or Above. www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Documents/statistics.

22.IDC (2014). The Digital Universe of Opportunities: Rich Data and the Increasing Value of the Internet of Things //EMC Digital Universe. Framingham, MA: IDC. www.emc.com/leadership/digitaluniverse/2014iview/index.htm. .

23.TeleGeography (2015). The Telegeography Report. www.telegeography.com.

24.Snyder, Benjamin (2015, May 29). Gmail Just Hit a Major Milestone// Fortune. www.fortune.com; Quigley, Robert (2011, March 8). The Cost of a Gigabyte over the Years //TheMarySue. www.themarysue.com/gigabyte-cost-over-years/.

25.Cisco (2015). The Zettabyte Era: Trends and Analysis. San Jose, CA: Cisco Systems Inc.

26.Internet Live Stats (2015). Internet Users. www.internetlivestats.com/internet-users.

27.Manyika, James, Jacques Bughin, et al. (2014). Global Flows in a Digital Age. New York: McKinsey & Co.

28.International Telecommunication Union (2015). ICT Facts & Figures: The World in 2015. Geneva: ITU; International Energy Agency (2014). World Energy Outlook 2014Electricity Access Database //OECD/IEA. www.worldenergyoutlook.org.

29.International Telecommunication Union (2015). ICT Facts & Figures: The World in 2015. Geneva: ITU.

30.Dennis, Sarah Grace, Thomas Trusk, et al. (2015). Viability of Bioprinted Cellular Constructs Using a Three Dispenser Cartesian Printer //Journal of Visualized Experiments 103.

31.Dredge, Stuart (2015, August 28). Zuckerberg: One in Seven People on the Planet Used Facebook on Monday //The Guardian. www.theguardian.com.

32.BBC News (2011, November 23). Facebook Users Average 3.74 Degrees of Separation BBC. www.bbc.co.uk.

33.Gates, Bill (1995). The Road Ahead. London: Viking. . 45.

2.

1.Emmer, Pieter (2003). The Myth of Early Globalization: The Atlantic Economy, 15001800 //European Review 11(1): 3747.

2.Ruggiero, Guido (2002). A Companion to the Worlds of the Renaissance. Oxford: Blackwell. . 288.

3.Maddison, Angus (2001). The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective. Development Center Studies. Paris: OECD. . 64.

4.Ruggiero, Guido (2002). A Companion to the Worlds of the Renaissance. Oxford: Blackwell. . 287.

5.Casale, Giancarlo (2003). The Ottoman Discovery of the Indian Ocean in the Sixteenth Century: The Age of Exploration from an Islamic Perspective. webdoc.sub.gwdg.de.

6.Krugman, Paul (1995). Growing World Trade: Causes and Consequences // Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1: 331.

7.United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2015). Merchandise: Total Trade and Share, Annual, 19482014 // UNCTADStat. unctadstat.unctad.org.

8.United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2015). Services (BPM5): Exports and Imports of Total Services, Value, Shares and Growth, Annual, 19802013 // UNCTADStat. unctadstat.unctad.org.

9.Containerisation International (1992). Containerisation International Yearbook. London: National MagazineCo.; World Shipping Council (2015). Top 50 World Container Ports. www.worldshipping.org/about-the-industry/global-trade.

10.International Civil Aviation Organization (1991, July). Air China Took Delivery of Its First Wide-Body Freighter // ICAO Journal. . 16.

11.United Nations Statistics Division (2015). GDP and Its Breakdowns // National Accounts Main Aggregate Database. unstats.un.org.

12.Trading Economics (2015). Bangladesh Exports 19722015. // www.tradingeconomics.com/bangladesh/exports.

13.The Economist (2011, June 16). Creaming Along // The Economist. www.economist.com.

14.India Brand Equity Foundation (2015). Indian IT and ITES Industry Analysis // IBEF. www.ibef.org/industry.

15.Eichengreen, Barry and Poonam Gupta (2012). Exports of Services: Indian Experiences in Perspective. New Delhi: National Institute of Public Finance and Policy. . 11.

16.United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2015). Goods and Services (BPM5): Exports and Imports of Goods and Services, Annual, 19802013 // UNCTADStat. unctadstat.unctad.org.

17.Statista (2015). International Trade: Monthly Value of Exports from China. // www.statista.com/statistics/271616/monthly-value-of-exports-from-china/.

18.China Statistics Press (2015). Chinas Exports & Imports, 19522014 // China Statistical Yearbook. www.stats.gov.cn.

19.United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2015). Merchandise: Intra-Trade and Extra-Trade of Country Groups by Product, Annual, 19952014 // UNCTADStat. unctadstat.unctad.org.

20.Hillsberg, Alex (2014, September 17). How & Where iPhone Is Made: Comparison of Apples Manufacturing Process // CompareCamp. comparecamp.com/how-where-iphone-is-madecomparison-of-apples-manufacturing-process.

21.Davidson, Nicholas (2014, January 20). Overseas Expansion and the Development of a World Economy (Lecture). Oxford: University of Oxford.

22.Denzel, Markus (2006). The European Bill of Exchange // International Economic History CongressXIV. www.helsinki.fi/iehc2006/papers1/Denzel2.pdf.

23.de Maddalena, Aldo and Hermann Kellenbenz (1986). La Repubblica Internazionale Del Denaro Tra XV E XVII Secolo. Bologna: Il Mulino.

24.Goldthwaite, Richard (2009). The Economy of Renaissance Florence. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

25.Ehrenberg, Richard (1928). Capital and Finance in the Age of the Renaissance: A Study of the Fuggers and Their Connections. London: Jonathan Cape. . 238.

26.Roxburgh, Charles, Susan Lund, et al. (2011). Mapping Global Capital Markets 2011. McKinsey Global Institute. New York: McKinsey & Co. . 32.

27.Manyika, James, Jacques Bughin, et al. (2014). Global Flows in a Digital Age. New York: McKinsey & Co.

28.Chomsisengphet, Souphala and Anthony Pennington-Cross (2006). The Evolution of the Subprime Mortgage Market // Federal Reserve Bank of St.Louis Review 88(1): 3156.

29.Manyika, James, Jacques Bughin, et al. (2014). Global Flows in a Digital Age. New York: McKinsey & Co.

30.International Monetary Fund (2015). Summary of International Transactions // IMF Balance of Payments. data.imf.org.

31.United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2015). Inward and Outward Foreign Direct Investment Flows, Annual, 19702013 // UNCTAD Stat. unctadstat.unctad.org/wds.

32.Jin, David, David C.Michael, et al. (2011, July 7). The Many City Growth Strategy // Boston: Boston Consulting Group. www.bcgperspectives.com.

33.Wheatley, Jonathan and Sam Fleming (2015, October 1). Capital Flight Darkens Economic Prospects for Emerging Markets // The Financial Times. www.ft.com.

34.Osler Hampson, Fen (2012, October 30). Canada Needs a Foreign Investment Plan Based on Fact, Not Fear // iPolitics. www.ipolitics.ca/2012/10/30/breaking-out-of-the-investment-igloo.

35.United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2015). Goods and Services (BPM5): Exports and Imports of Goods and Services, Annual, 19802013 // UNCTADStat. unctadstat.unctad.org; International Monetary Fund (2015). Summary of International Transactions // IMF Balance of Payments. data.imf.org.

36.United Nations World Tourism Organization (2015). UNWTO Tourism Highlights (2015 Edition). Madrid: UNWTO.

37.World Bank Databank (2015). Air Transport, Passengers Carried // World Development Indicators. data.worldbank.org.

38.Manyika, James, Jacques Bughin, et al. (2014). Global Flows in a Digital Age. New York: McKinsey & Co.

39.International Civil Aviation Organization (1991, July). Comparison of Traffic at the Worlds Major Airports, 1989 Versus 1980 // ICAO Journal; International Civil Aviation Organization (2013). Forecasts of Scheduled Passenger and Freight Traffic. www.icao.int/sustainability/pages.

40.Boeing (2015). Current Market Outlook 20152034. Seattle: Boeing Commercial Airplanes Market Analysis.

41.Ibid.

42.Acemoglu, Daron, Simon H.Johnson, et al. (2002). The Rise of Europe: Atlantic Trade, Institutional Change and Economic Growth. Boston: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

43.Lynch, Katherine (2003). Individuals, Families, and Communities in Europe, 12001800: The Urban Foundations of Western Society. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. . 30.

44.Elliott, J.H. (1963). Imperial Spain: 14691716. London: Edwin Arnold Ltd. . 177.

45.United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2014). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision. New York: United Nations.

46.Ibid.

47.United Nations Population Fund (2007). Growing Up Urban: State of World Population 2007, Youth Supplement. New York: United Nations.

48.China National Statistics Bureau (1990). Fourth National Population Census. Beijing: Department of Population Statistics.

49.Shenzhen Government Online (2015). Overview: Demographics. english.sz.gov.cn/gi.

50.United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2014). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision. New York: United Nations.

51.Ibid.

52.MacCulloch, Diarmaid (2003). Reformation: Europes House Divided, 14901700. London: Allen Lane. . 60, 648649.

53.Frankel, NeilA. (2008). Facts and Figures // The Atlantic Slave Trade and Slavery in America. www.slaverysite.com/Body/facts%20and%20figures.htm.

54.World Bank (2013). Bilateral Migration Matrix 2013 // Migration & Remittances Data. econ.worldbank.org.

55.Manyika, James, Jacques Bughin, et al. (2014). Global Flows in a Digital Age. New York: McKinsey & Co.

56.Eurostat (2015). Non-National Population by Group of Citizenship, 1 January 2014 // Eurostat. ec.europa.eu/eurostat.

57.Goldin, Ian (2012). Exceptional People: How Migration Shaped Our World and Will Define Our Future. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

58.United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2013). Total International Migrant Stock, 2013 Revision // UN Population Division. esa.un.org/unmigration; Pew Research Center (2014, September 2). Origins and Destinations of the Worlds Migrants, from 19902013. www.pewglobal.org.

59.Dustmann, Christian and Tommaso Frattini (2014). The Fiscal Effects of Immigration to the UK // The Economic Journal 124(580): 593643.

60.Goldin, Ian (2012). Exceptional People: How Migration Shaped Our World and Will Define Our Future. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

61.Ibid.

62.Ibid.

63.Kosloski, Rey (2014, June 11). The American Way of Border Control and Immigration Reform Politics. Oxford: Oxford Martin School.

64.Miles, Tom (2015, September 25). UN Sees Refugee Flow to Europe Growing, Plans for Big Iraq Displacement // Reuters. www.reuters.com.

65.Spate, O. H. K. (1979). The Spanish Lake: The Pacific Since Magellan. Canberra: Australian National University Press. . 1522.

66.Ibid.

67.Thrower, NormanJ. W. (2008). Maps and Civilization: Cartography in Culture and Society (3rd Ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. . 63.

68.Wightman, W. P. D. (1962). Science and the Renaissance. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd. . 143.

69.Puttevils, Jeroen (2016). Merchants and Trading in the Sixteenth Century: The Golden Age of Antwerp. New York: Routledge.

70.Kohn, Meir (2010). How and Why Economies Develop and Grow: Lessons from Preindustrial Europe and China // Hanover, NH: Darmouth College Department of Economics. ssrn.com/abstract=1723870.

71.Manyika, James, Jacques Bughin, et al. (2014). Global Flows in a Digital Age. New York: McKinsey & Co.

72.Macaulay, James, Lauren Buckalew, et al. (2015). Internet of Things in Logistics. Troisdorf, Germany: DHL Trend Research and Cisco Consulting Services. www.dpdhl.com.

73.Seoul Metropolitan Government (2015). Seoul Transportation: People First // Seoul Solution. www.seoulsolution.kr/content.

74.Bernhofen, DanielM., Zouheir El-Sahli, et al. (2013). Estimating the Effects of Containerization on World Trade // Nottingham, UK: Centre for Research on Globalisation and Economic Policy. www.nottingham.ac.uk/gep.

75.World Maritime News (2015, February 19). Global Container Volumes Rise // World Maritime News. worldmaritimenews.com/archives.

76.Schneider, Friedrich, Andreas Buehn, et al. (2010). Shadow Economies All Over the World: Estimates for 162 Countries from 1999 to 2007 // Policy Research Working Paper 5356. Development Research Group, Poverty & Inequality Team, WashingtonD.C.: World Bank.

77.Naim, Moses (2005). Illicit: How Smugglers, Traffickers and Counterfeiters Are Hijacking the Global Economy. London: Random House.

78.Pimentel, David (2005). Update on the Environmental and Economic Costs Associated with Alien-Invasive Species in the United States // Ecological Economics 52: 273288.

79.Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2014). Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Geneva: IPCC.

80.Anderson, Benedict (2006). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread ofNationalism. London: Verso.

81.W3 Techs (2015). Usage of Content Languages for Websites. w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all.

82.Internet World Stats (2014). Internet World Users by Language // Usage and Population Statistics. www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm.

3.

1.Ramus, Peter (1569). Scholarum Mathematicarum, Libri Unus Et Triginta Basel: Per Eusebium Episcopium, & Nicolai fratris haeredes. Preface.

2.della Mirandola, Pico (14631494) (2012). Oration on the Dignity of Man: A New Translation and Commentary. Translated by F.Borghesi, M.Papio and M.Riva. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

3.Peterson, DavidS. (2004). Religion and the Church // InItaly in the Age of the Renaissance: 13001550, edited by J.Najemy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. . 76; Britannica (2014). Giovanni Pico Della Mirandola. www.britannica.com.

4.Hendrix, John (2003). History and Culture in Italy. Oxford: University Press of America.

5.Wheelis, Mark (2002). Biological Warfare at the 1346 Siege of Caffa // Journal of EmergingInfectious Diseases 8(9): 973.

6.Ruggiero, Guido (2002). A Companion to the Worlds of the Renaissance. Oxford: Blackwell.

7.Bartlett, Robert (1993). The Making of Europe: Conquest, Colonization and Cultural Change 9501350. London: BCA. .108.

8.Najemy, John (2006). A History of Florence, 12001575. Oxford: Blackwell. . 97100.

9.Lis, Catharina and Hugo Soly (1979). Poverty and Capitalism in Pre-Industrial Europe. Hassocks, UK: Harvester Press.

10.Ruggiero, Guido (2002). A Companion to the Worlds of the Renaissance. Oxford: Blackwell.

11.Ibid.

12.The Maddison Project (2013). Maddison Project Database. www.ggdc.net/maddison/maddison-project/home.htm.

13.Geremek, Bronislaw (1994). Poverty: A History. Oxford: Blackwell.

14.World Bank Databank (2014). Life Expectancy at Birth, Total (Years) // World Development Indicators. data.worldbank.org.

15.The Economist (2012, December 15). Global Health: Lifting the Burden // The Economist. www.economist.com.

16.Deaton, Angus (2013). The Great Escape: Health, Wealth, and the Origins of Inequality. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

17.Banerjee, AbhijitV. and Esther Duflo (2006). The Economic Lives of the Poor // MIT Department of Economics Working PaperNo. 0629. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab. economics.mit.edu.

18.World Bank Databank (2015). GDP per Capita (Constant LCU) // World Development Indicators. data.worldbank.org.

19.World Bank Databank (2015). GDP per Capita (Constant 2005 US$) // World Development Indicators. data.worldbank.org.

20.United Nations (2015). Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty & Hunger // Millennium Development Goals and Beyond 2015. www.un.org/millenniumgoals/poverty.shtml.

21.World Bank (2013, April 17). Remarkable Declines in Global Poverty, but Major Challenges Remain. www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2013/04/17/remarkable-declinesin-global-poverty-but-major-challenges-remain.

22.Trading Economics (2015). China Average Yearly Wages. www.tradingeconomics.com/china/wages.

23.World Bank (2015). World Development Indicators: Women in Development // 2015 WorldView. wdi.worldbank.org.

24.The Economist (2000, May 11). Hopeless Africa // The Economist. www.economist.com.

25.Schneidman, Witney and Zenia A.Lewis (2012). The African Growth and Opportunity Act: Looking Back, Looking Forward. Washington, D.C.: BrookingsInstitution.

26.World Bank Databank (2015). Sub-Saharan Africa (Developing Only) // World Development Indicators. data.worldbank.org.

27.African Development Bank Group (2014). ADB Socio-economic Database: National Accounts // ADB Data Portal. dataportal.afdb.org/default.aspx.

28.De Ridder-Symoens, Hilda (1996). A History of the University in Europe. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

29.Von Eulenburg, Franz (1904). Die Frequenz Der Deutschen UniversitatenVon Ihrer Grundung Bis Zur Gegenwart. Leibzig: B. G.Teubner.

30.Ralph, Philip Lee (1973). The Renaissance in Perspective. New York: St.Martins Press.

31.Roser, Max (2015). Literacy // OurWorldInData.org. ourworldindata.org/data/educationknowledge/literacy.

32.United Nations (2015). Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education // Millennium Development Goals and Beyond 2015. www.un.org/millenniumgoals/education.shtml.

33.World Bank Databank (2015). Primary Enrollment Rate; Primary Completion Rate // Education Statistics-AllIndicators. databank.worldbank.org.

34.World Bank (2012). World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

35.World Bank Databank (2014). School Enrollment, Primary, Female (% Net); School Enrollment, Secondary, Female (% Net) // World Development Indicators. data.worldbank.org.

36.World Bank (2012). World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. . 106.

37.World Bank Databank (2014). School Enrollment, Tertiary (% Gross) // World Development Indicators. data.worldbank.org.

38.UNESCO (2014). Enrolment in Tertiary Education // UNESCO Institute for Statistics Database. data.uis.unesco.org.

39.Hultman, Nathan, Katherine Sierra, et al. (2012). Green GrowthInnovation: New Pathways for International Cooperation. Washington, D.C.: BrookingsInstitution.

40.World Bank (2012). World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. . 14.

41.UNICEF (2015). Levels and Trends in Child Mortality. New York: UNICEF.

42.Ibid.

43.World Health Organization (2012). World Health Statistics 2012. Geneva: WHO.

44.World Health Organization (2014). Global Status Report on Noncommunicable Diseases 2014. Geneva: WHO.

45.Dwyer, Terence, PhD. (2015, October 1). The Present State of Medical Science // Interviewed by C.Kutarna, University of Oxford.

46.Human Mortality Database (2014). Global Population and Mortality Data. www.mortality.org.

47.Goldin, Ian, ed. (2014). Is the Planet Full? Oxford: Oxford University Press.

48.Goldin, Ian and Kenneth Reinert (2012). Globalization for Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

49.Vietnam Food Association (2014). Yearly Export Statistics. vietfood.org.vn/en/default.aspx?c=108.

50.Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association (2015). TradeInformation // bgmea.com.bd/home/pages/TradeInformation.

51.Burke, Jason (2013, November 14). Bangladesh Garment Workers Set for 77% Pay Rise // The Guardian. www.theguardian.com.

52.Goldin, Ian and Kenneth Reinert (2012). Globalization for Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

53.Industrial Development Bureau (2015). IndustryIntroduction History of Industrial Development // Ministry of Economic Affairs. www.moeaidb.gov.tw/external/view/en/english/about04.html.

54.Kim, Ran (1996). The Korean System of Innovation and the SemiconductorIndustry: A Governance Perspective // SPRU/SEI-Working Paper. Paris: OECD.

55.IC Insights (2015). Global Wafer Capacity. Scottsdale, AZ: IC Insights.

56.World Bank (2012). World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

57.World Bank (2015). Migration and Remittances: Recent Developments and Outlook // Migration and Development Brief 22. WashingtonD.C.: World Bank.

58.Dayrit, ManuelM. (2013). Brain Drain and Brain Gain: Selected Country Experiences and Responses. Singapore: Asia Regional World Health Summit.

59.Statistics Canada (2011). Data Tables (Ethnic Origin) // National Household Survey. www12.statcan.gc.ca.

60.Goldin, Ian and Kenneth Reinert (2012). Globalization for Development: Meeting New Challenges. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter 7.

61.World Bank (2011). World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security and Development. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

62.Zakaria, Fareed (2008). The Post-American World. London: Allen Lane.

63.World Bank (2011). World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security and Development. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

64.Ibid.

65.Goldstone, JackA. (1991). Revolution and Rebellion in the Early Modern World. Berkeley: University of California Press.

66.Lis, Catharina and Hugo Soly (1979). Poverty and Capitalism in Pre-Industrial Europe. Hassocks, UK: Harvester Press.

67.Geremek, Bronislaw (1994). Poverty: A History. Oxford: Blackwell.

68.Jutte, Robert (1994). Poverty and Deviance in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

69.Goldstone, JackA. (1991). Revolution and Rebellion in the Early Modern World. Berkeley: University of California Press.

70.Davidson, Nicholas (2014, January 20). Overseas Expansion and the Development of a World Economy. Lecture. Oxford: University of Oxford.

71.Ruggiero, Guido (2002). A Companion to the Worlds of the Renaissance. Oxford: Blackwell.

72.Kukaswadia, Atif (2013). What Killed the Aztecs? A Researcher Probes Role of 16th Century Megadrought // Public Health Perspectives. blogs.plos.org/publichealth/2013/07/30/guestpost-what-killed-the-aztecs/; Hunefeldt, Christine (2004). A Brief History of Peru. New York: Facts On FileInc. P. 52.

73.Ruggiero, Guido (2002). A Companion to the Worlds of the Renaissance. Oxford: Blackwell.

74.Milanovic, Branko (2012). Global Income Inequality by the Numbers: In History and Now // Policy Research Working Paper 6259. Washington, D.C.: World Bank Development Research Group.

75.Oxfam (2016). An Economy for the 1%. Oxford: Oxfam International.

76.United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2014). Access to Sanitation // International Decade of Action Water for Life 20052015. New York: United Nations. www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/sanitation.shtml; International Energy Agency (2015). World Energy Outlook 2014Electricity Access Database // OECD/IEA. www.worldenergyoutlook.org; Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (2015). The State of Food Insecurity in the World. Rome: FAO.

77.UNDP (2010). The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development. Human Development Report 2010. New York: United Nations; World Health Organization (2014). The Top 1Causes of Death. www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs310/en/index3.html; World Health Organization (2015). Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion. www.who.int/chp/en.

78.Barro, RobertJ. and Xavier Sala-i-Martin (1992). Convergence // Journal of Political Economy 100(2): 223251; Deaton, Angus (2013). The Great Escape: Health, Wealth, and the Origins of Inequality. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; Pritchett, Lant (1997). Convergence, Big Time // Journal of Economic Perspectives 11(3): 317.

79.Kharas, Homi (2015, January 9). The Transition from the Developing World to a Developing World // Kapuscinski Development Lectures. www.brookings.edu.

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32.Ibid.

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32.Lee, Alexander (2013). The Ugly Renaissance. London: Hutchinson.

33.Sobel, Dava (2011). A More Perfect Heaven: How Copernicus Revolutionized the Cosmos. London: Bloomsbury.

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35.Ibid.

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6. ,

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2.Ibid.

3.Allen, Peter Lewis (2000). Wages of Sin. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

4.Ibid.

5.Hale, J.R. (1985). War and Society in Renaissance Europe, 14501620. London: Fontana Press.

6.Tognotti, Eugenia (2009). The Rise and Fall of Syphilis in Renaissance Europe // The Journal of Medical Humanities 30(2): 99113.

7.Ibid.

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34.Ibid.

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40.Ibid.

41.Goldin, Ian and Mike Mariathasan (2014). The Butterfly Defect. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

42.Brockmann, Dirk, Lars Hufnagel, et al. (2005). Dynamics of Modern Epidemics // In SARS: A Case Study in EmergingInfections, edited by A.McLean, R.May et al. Oxford: Oxford University Press. P. 8191.

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47.United Nations Development Programme (2010). The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development. Human Development Report 2010. New York: United Nations.

48.Parts of our discussion of systemic risk in the financial sector draw upon prior work by Ian Goldin and Mike Mariathasan in The Butterfly Defect (2014), published by Princeton University Press.

49.Gorton, GarryB. and Andrew Metrick (2009). Securitized Banking and the Run on Repo // National Bureau of Economic Research Working PaperNo. 15223. www.nber.org/papers/w15223.

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55.Kosmidou, Kyriaki, Sailesh Tanna, et al. (2005). Determinants of Profitability of Domestic UK Commercial Banks: Panel Evidence from the Period 19952002 // Money Macro and Finance (MMF) Research Group Conference 2005. repec.org/mmfc05/paper45.pdf; Maer, Lucinda and Nida Broughton (2012). Financial Services: Contribution to the UK Economy. London: House of Commons Library, Economic Policy and Statistics.

56.The Economist (2011). Cracks in the Crust // The Economist. www.economist.com.

57.Haldane, Andrew G. (2009, April 28). Rethinking the Financial Network // Speech given to the Financial Student Association, Amsterdam. www.bankofengland.co.uk/archive/Documents/historicpubs/speeches/2009/speech386.pdf.

58.Green Growth Action Alliance (2013). RequiredInfrastructure Needs // The GreenInvestment Report. Geneva: World Economic Forum.

59.American Society of Civil Engineers (2013). Grade Sheet: Americas InfrastructureInvestment Needs // Reston, VA: ASCE. www.infrastructurereportcard.org.

60.Bhattacharya, Amar, Mattia Romani, et al. (2012). Infrastructure for Development: Meeting the Challenge // Policy brief. Seoul: Global Green GrowthInstitute. www.gggi.org.

61.Bolt, J. and J.L. van Zanden (2014). The Maddison Project: Collaborative Research on Historical National Accounts // The Economic History Review 67 (3): 627651.

62.Crowley, Roger (2011). City of Fortune: HowVenice Won and Lost a Naval Empire. London: Faber & Faber.

63.Ibid.

64.The Economist (2006, June 15). When the Chain Breaks // The Economist. www.economist.com.

65.For more on the Thailand case, see Goldin, Ian and Mike Mariathasan (2014), The Butterfly Defect. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

66.Chongvilaivan, Aekapol (2012). Thailands 2011 Flooding: ItsImpact on Direct Exports and Global Supply Chains // ARTNeT Working Paper Series, No. 113. hdl.handle.net/10419/64271.

67.Thailand Board of Investment (2012). Expertise, NewInvestment Keep Thai E&E Industry at the Top // ThailandInvestment Review. www.boi.go.th.

68.Abe, Masato and Linghe Ye (2013). Building Resilient Supply Chains against Natural Disasters: The Cases of Japan and Thailand // Global Business Review 14: 567.

69.Ibid.

70.Smalley, Eric (2011, December 12). Thai Floodwaters SinkIntel Chip Orders // Wired. www.wired.com.

71.Thailand Board of Investment (2015). E&E Industry: Hard Disk Drive Export, 20052014 // ThailandInvestment Review. www.boi.go.th.

72.Oxford Economics (2010). The EconomicImpacts of Air Travel Restrictions Due to Volcanic Ash, Report Prepared for Airbus. Oxford: Oxford Economics.

73.Kaplan, Eben (2007, April 24). Americas Vulnerable Energy Grid // Council on Foreign Relations.

74.US Canada Power System Outage Task Force (2004). Final Report on the August 14, 2003 Blackout in the United States and Canada: Causes and Recommendations. Washington, D.C. and Ottawa: Department of Energy and Ministry of Natural Resources. . 19.

75.Kharas, Homi (2015, January 9). The Transition from the Developing World to a Developing World. // Kapuscinski Development Lectures. www.brookings.edu.

76.Airports CouncilInternational (2015). Annual Traffic Data. www.aci.aero/DataCentre/Annual-Traffic-Data.

77.World Shipping Council (2015). Top 50 World Container Ports. www.worldshipping.org/about-the-industry/global-trade.

78.EMC Corporation (2014, December 2). Over $ 1.7 Trillion Lost per Year from Data Loss and Downtime According to Global IT Study. uk.emc.com/about/news/press/2014/2014120201.htm.

79.Miller, Rich (2013, July). Who Has the Most Data Servers? // Data Center Knowledge. www.datacenterknowledge.com/archives/2009/05/14/whos-got-the-most-web-servers.

80.IBM (2015). 2015 Cyber SecurityIntelligence Index. New York: IBM Security. public.dhe.ibm.com/common/ssi/ecm/se/en/sew03073usen/SEW03073USEN.PDF.

81.Greenberg, Andy (2015). Hackers Remotely Kill a Jeep on the Highway with Me in It // Wired. www.youtube.com.

82.Symantec (2015). 2015 Internet Security Threat Report, Volume 20. MountainView, CA: Symantec. www.symantec.com/security_response/publications/threatreport.jsp.

83.Rogin, Josh (2012, July 9). NSA Chief: Cybercrime Constitutes the Greatest Transfer of Wealth in History. // Foreign Policy. www.foreignpolicy.com.

84.Ibid.; IBM (2015). 2015 Cyber SecurityIntelligence Index. New York: IBM Security. public.dhe.ibm.com/common/ssi/ecm/se/en/sew03073usen/SEW03073USEN.PDF.

85.Rainie, Lee, Janna Anderson, et al. (2014, 29 October). Cyber Attacks Likely to Increase // Pew Research Center. www.pewinternet.org.

86.PonemonInstitute (2015). 2015 Cost of Data Breach Study: Global Analysis. Traverse City, MI: PonemonInstitute.

87.Associated Press (2015, September 23). US Government Hack Stole Fingerprints of 5.6 Million Federal Employees // The Guardian. www.theguardian.com.

88.Symantec (2015). 2015 Internet Security Threat Report. Volume 20. MountainView, CA: Symantec. www.symantec.com/security_response/publications/threatreport.jsp

89.Kushner, David (2013, February 26). The Real Story of Stuxnet // IEEE Spectrum. spectrum.ieee.org/telecom/security.

90.Menn, Joseph (2015, May 29). US Tried Stuxnet-Style Campaign against North Korea but Failed Sources // Reuters. www.reuters.com.

91.Bundesamt fur Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik (2014). Die Lage DerIT-Sicherheit in Deutschland 2014. Berlin: German Federal Office for Information Security. www.bsi.bund.de.

92.Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (2015). ICS-CERT Year in Review. Washington, D.C.: Department of Homeland Security. ics-cert.us-cert.gov.

93.Maddison, Angus (2003). The World Economy: Historical Statistics, Vol. 2: Statistical Appendix. Paris: OECD.

7.

1.Savonarola, Girolamo (14521498) (1971). O Soul, by Sin Made Blind // InItalian Poets of the Renaissance, edited by J.Tusiani. New York: Baroque Press. . 81.

2.Weinstein, Donald (2011). Savonarola: The Rise and Fall of a Renaissance Prophet. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

3.Cameron, Euan (2012). The European Reformation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

4.Weinstein, Donald (2011). Savonarola: The Rise and Fall of a Renaissance Prophet. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

5.Ibid.

6.Viladesau, Richard (2008). The Triumph of the Cross: The Passion of Christ in Theology and the Arts. Oxford: Oxford University Press. . 30.

7.Jones, Jonathan (2011, October 19). The Lusts of Leonardo Da Vinci // The Guardian. www.theguardian.com.

8.Martines, Lauro (2006). Scourge and Fire: Savonarola and Renaissance Florence. London: Jonathan Cape.

9.Martines, Lauro (2006). Fire in the City: Savonarola and the Struggle for the Soul of the Renaissance. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

10.Black, Robert (2010). Book Review: Venice Besieged: Politics and Diplomacy in the Italian Wars, by Robert Finlay // English Historical Review CXXV (512): 170171.

11.Martines, Lauro (2006). Fire in the City: Savonarola and the Struggle for the Soul of the Renaissance. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

12.Martines, Lauro (2006). Scourge and Fire: Savonarola and Renaissance Florence. London: Jonathan Cape.

13.Savonarola, Girolamo (14521498) (2005). Aggeus, SermonXIII. Delivered on the 3rd Sunday of Advent, 12 December 1494 // In Selected Writings of Girolamo Savonarola, Religion and Politics, 14901498, edited by A.Borelli, D.Beebe and M.Passaro. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

14.Shane, Scott (2015, June 24). Homegrown Extremists Tied to Deadlier Toll Than Jihadists in US Since 9/11 // The New York Times. www.nytimes.com; Hitchens, Christopher (2006, January). Childhoods End // Vanity Fair. www.vanityfair.com.

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16.Human Rights Watch (2013). All You Can DoIs Pray: Crimes against Humanity and Ethnic Cleansing of Rohingya Muslims in Burmas Arakan State. New York: Human Rights Watch.

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20.Berrebi, Claude (2007). Evidence about the Link between Education, Poverty and Terrorism among Palestinians // Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy 13(1): 136.

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25. 25. UNHCR (2015). Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the Human Rights Situation in Iraq in the Light of Abuses Committed by the So-CalledIslamic State in Iraq and the Levant and Associated Groups. Geneva: UN Human Rights Office.

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27.International Fund for Agricultural Development (2011). Syrian Arab Republic: A Country Fact Sheet on Youth Employment // IFAD. 2011 Governing Council.

28.Arnold, David (2013, August 20). Drought Called a Factor in Syrias Uprising // Voice of America. www.voanews.com.

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31.United Nations Development Programme (2014). AboutIraq. www.iq.undp.org/content/iraq/en/home/countryinfo.

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33.Wischenbart, Rudiger and Nasser Jarrous (2012, November 7). An Arab Publishing Panorama // BookBrunch. www.bookbrunch.co.uk; plus Google Books estimate of total universe of books.

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35.Luther, Martin (14831546) (1908). Letter to Christoph Scheurl, March 5, 1518 // In The Letters of Martin Luther, edited by M.Currie. London: Macmillan and Co., p. 23.

36.EdwardsJr., MarkU. (2005). Printing, Propaganda, and Martin Luther. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press; Hsia, R.Po-Chia (2006). A Companion to the Reformation World. Oxford: Blackwell.

37.MacCulloch, Diarmaid (2003). Reformation: Europes House Divided, 14901700. London: Allen Lane.

38.Goldstone, JackA. (1991). Revolution and Rebellion in the Early Modern World. Berkeley: University of California Press.

39.Te Brake, Wayne (1998). Shaping History: Ordinary People in European Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press.

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41.Ibid. P. 671672.

42.Hall, Edward (14971547) (1904). HenryVIII. Edited by C.Whibley, The Lives of the Kings, Volume 2. London: T.C. & E. C.Jack. . 43.

43.Lean, Geoffrey (1999, July 17). The Hidden Tentacles of the Worlds Most Secret Body // SundayIndependent. www.independent.co.uk.

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45.Piketty, Thomas (2014). Capital in the 21st Century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

46.Credit Suisse Research Institute (2010). Global Wealth Report 2010. Zurich: Credit Suisse.

47.Piketty, Thomas (2014). Capital in the 21st Century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, Chapters 6 and 10.

48.OECD (2015). InIt Together: Why Less Inequality Benefits All. Paris: OECD Publishing.

49.Saez, Emmanuel (2013). StrikingIt Richer: The Evolution of TopIncomes in the United States (Updated with 2012 Preliminary Estimates). Berkeley, CA: Stanford University Center for the Study of Poverty and Inequality.

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54.RT.com (2011, October 15). Rome Descends into Chaos as Protests TurnViolent // RT. www.rt.com.

55.Rowley, Emma (2011, January 16). Bank Bail-out Adds.1.5 Trillion to Debt // The Telegraph. www.telegraph.co.uk.

56.BBC News (2011, January 7). Bank Bonuses to Run to Billions in 2011 // BBC. www.bbc.co.uk.

57.BBCNews (2015, June 20). Thousands Attend Anti-Austerity Rallies across UK // BBC. www.bbc.co.uk.

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63.OECD (2015). InIt Together: Why Less Inequality Benefits All. Paris: OECD Publishing. . 240.

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