: . E. coli

<<<
>>>

Ackermann, ., L. Chao, C. T. Bergstrom, and M. Doebeli. 2007. On the evolutionary origin of aging. Aging Cell 6 (2):235~44.

Adams, J. 2004. Microbial evolution in laboratory environments. Res Microbiol 155(5):311-18.

Adrio, J. L., and A.L.Demain. 2006. Genetic improvement of processes yielding micro- bial products. FEMS Microbiol Rev 30 (2):187214.

Alon, U. 2007. Network motifs: Theory and experimental approaches. Nat Rev Genet 8 (6):45061.

Andrews, S. C., A. . Robinson, and F. Rodriguez?Quinones. 2003. Bacterial iron homeostasis. FEMS Microbiol Rev 27 (23):21537.

Avery, . T., C. M. MacLeod, and M. McCarty. 1979. Studies on the chemical nature of the substance inducing transformation of pneumococcal types: Induction of trans- formation by a desoxyribonucleic acid fraction isolated from pneumococcus typeIII. J Exp Med 149 (2):297326.

Avise, John C. 2004. The hope, hype, and reality of genetic engineering: Remarkable storiesfrom agriculture, industry, medicine, and the environment. New York: Oxford University Press.

Babili, S. al-, and P. Beyer. 2005. Golden rice five years on the road five years to go? Trends Plant Sei 10 (12):56573.

Babu, M. M., andL. Aravind. 2006. Adaptive evolution by optimizing expression levels in different environments. Trends Microbiol 14

(1):1114.

Backhed, F., R. E. Ley, J. L. Sonnenburg, D. A. Peterson, and J.I.Gordon. 2005. Host- bacterial mutualism in the human intestine. Science 307 (5717):1915-20.

Baker, D., G. Church, J. Collins, D. Endy, J. Jacobson, J. Keasling, P. Modrich, C. Smolke, and R. Weiss. 2006. Engineering life: Building a fab for biology. Sei Am 294 (6):4451.

Baker, M. D., P.M. Wolanin, and J.B.Stock. 2006. Signal transduction in bacterial chemotaxis. Bioessays 28 (l):9-22.

Balaban, N. Q., J. Merrin, R. Chait, L. Kowalik, and S. Leibler.

2004. Bacterial persis- tence as a phenotypic switch. Science 305 (5690):162225.

Barluenga, ., K. N. Stolting, W. Salzburger, M. Muschick, and A. Meyer. 2006. Sym- patrie spciation in Nicaraguan crater lake cichlid fish. Nature 439 (7077):719-23. Barrick, J. E., and R.R.Breaker. 2007. The power of riboswitches. Sei Am 296 (1):5057. Bartoloni,

A., L. Pallecchi, M. Benedetti, C. Fernandez, Y. Vallejos, E. Guzman,

A. L. Villagran, A. Mantella, C. Lucchetti, F. Bartalesi, M. Strohmeyer,

A. Bechini, H. Gam- boa, H. Rodriguez, T. Falkenberg, G. Kronvall,

E. Gotuzzo, F. Paradisi, and G.M.Rossolini. 2006. Multidrug?resistant commensal Escherichia eoli in children, Peru and Bolivia. EmergInfect Dis 12 (6)507-13.

Battistuzzi, F. U., A. Feijao, and S.B.Hedges. 2004. A genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: Insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land. BMC Evol Biol 4:44.

Behe, Michael. 1996. Darwins black box. New York: Free Press.

Behrens, Mark R., Nedim Mutlu, Sarbani Chakraborty, Razvan Dumitru, Wen Zhi Jiang, Bradley J. LaVallee, PatriciaL. Herman, Thomas E. Clemente, and Donald P. Weeks. 2007. Dicamba resistance: Enlarging and preserving biotechnology?based weed management strategies. Science 316 (5828):118588.

Beloin, C., J. Valle, P. Latour?Lambert, P. Faure, M. Kzreminski, D. Balestrino, J. A. Haa- gensen, S. Molin, G. Prensier, B. Arbeille, and J.M.Ghigo. 2004. Global impact of mature biofilm lifestyle on Escherichia coli K-12 gene expression. Mol Microbiol 51 (3):659-74.

Benner, S. A., A. Ricardo, and M.A.Carrigan. 2004. Is there a common chemical model for life in the universe? Curr Opin Chem Biol 8 (6):672-89.

Ben?Shahar, Y., K. Nannapaneni, T. L. Casavant, T. E. Scheetz, and M.J.Welsh. 2006.

Eukaryotic operon?like transcription of functionally related genes in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 104 (l):222-27.

Berg, Howard C. 2004. E. eoli in motion. Biological and Medical Physics Series. New York: Springer.

Bernhardt, T. G., and P. A. de Boer. 2005. SlmA, a nucleoid- associated, FtsZ binding protein required for blocking septal ring assembly over chromosomes in E. eoli. Mol Cell 18 (5):55564.

Binnewies, T. T., Y. Motro, P. F. Hallin, O. Lund, D. Dunn, T. La, D. J. Hampson, M. Bellgard, T. M. Wassenaar, and D.W.Ussery. 2006. Ten years of bacterial genome sequencing: Comparative?genomics- based discoveries. FunctIntegr Genomics 6 (3):16585.

Bird, C. P., B. E. Stranger, and E.T.Dermitzakis. 2006. Functional variation and evolu- tion of non?coding DNA. Curr Opin Genet Dev 16 (6):55964.

Blattner, F. R., G. PlunkettIII, C. A. Bloch, N. T. Perna, V. Burland, M. Riley, J. Collado- Vides, J. D. Glasner, C. K. Rode, G. F. Mayhew, J. Gregor, N. W. Davis, H. A. Kirk- patrick, M. A. Goeden, D. J. Rose, B. Mau, and Y. Shao. 1997. The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-12. Science 277 (5331):1453-74.

Bliss, Richard. 1981. Creation science papers. Series 1, subseries 1, box 4, folder 5. Special collections, University of ArkansasLibraries, Fayetteville.

Bogosian, G., andJ. F. Kane. 1991. Fate of recombinant Escherichia coli K-12 strains in the environment. AdvAppl Microbiol 36:87-131.

Bollinger, R. R., A. S. Barbas, E. L. Bush, S. S. Lin, and W. Parker. 2007. Biofilms in the normal human large bowel: Fact rather than fiction. Gut 56:1481-12.

Borlaug, N. E. 2000. Ending world hunger: The promise of biotechnology and the threat of antiscience zealotry. Plant Physiol 124 (2):48790.

Bray, D., M. D. Levin, and K. Lipkow. 2007. The chemotactic behavior of computer- based surrogate bacteria. Curr Biol 17 (1):1219.

Bray, J. 1945. Isolation of antigenically homogeneous strains of Bact. coli neapolitanum from summer diarrhea of infants. J Pathol Bacteriol 57:239-47.

Brock, Thomas D. 1990. The emergence of bacterial genetics. Cold Spring Harbor, N. Y.: Cold Spring HarborLaboratory Press.

Bud, Robert. 1993. The uses of life: A history of biotechnology. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Bush, George. 2006. State of the Union Address. White House. http://www.whitehouse. gov/stateoftheunion/2006 /.

Cairns, J., J. Overbaugh, and S. Miller. 1988. The origin of mutants. Nature 335(6186):142-45.

Casalino, M., M. C. Latella, G. Prosseda, P. Ceccarini, F. Grimont, and

B. Colonna. 2005. Molecular evolution of the lysine decarboxylase- defective phenotype in Shigella sonnei. IntJ Med Microbiol294 (8):50312.

Cascales, E., S. K. Buchanan, D. Duch, C. Kleanthous, R. Lloubes, K. Postle, M. Riley, S. Slatin, and D. Cavard. 2007. Colicin biology. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 71 (1):158229. Cavalieri, L. F. 1976. New strains of life or death. New York Times Magazine, August 22,1976.

Chang, D. E., D. J. Smalley, and T. Conway. 2002. Gene expression profiling of Escherichia coli growth transitions: An expanded stringent response model. Mol Microbiol 45 (2):289306.

Chang, . ., and J.D.Keasling. 2006. Production of isoprenoid pharmaceuticals by engineered microbes. Nat Chem Biol 2

(12):67481.

Chargaff, E., and F.R.Simring. 1976. On the dangers of genetic meddling. Science 192(4243):938.

Chen, S. L., . S. Hung, J. Xu, C. S. Reigstad, V. Magrini, A. Sabo, D. Blasiar, T. Bieri, R. R. Meyer, P. Ozersky, J. R. Armstrong, R. S. Fulton, J. P. Latreille, J. Spieth, T. M. Hooton, E. R. Mardis, S. J. Hultgren, and J.I.Gordon. 2006. Identification of genes subject to positive selection in uropathogenic strains of Escherichia eoli: A comparative genomics approach. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 103 (15):597782.

Chong, Jia?Rui. 2006.13th century text hides words of Archimedes. Los Angeles Times, December 26,2006.

Chou, C. P. 2007. Engineering cell physiology to enhance recombinant protein produc- tion in Escherichia eoli. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, in press.

Ciccarelli, Francesca D., Tobias Doerks, Christian von Mering, Christopher J. Creevey, Berend Snel, and Peer Bork. 2006. Toward automatic reconstruction of a highly resolved tree of life. Science 311 (5765):1283-87.

Cirz, R. T., J. K. Chin, D. R. Andes, V. de Crcy?Lagard, W. A. Craig, and F.E.Romes- berg. 2005. Inhibition of mutation and combating the evolution of antibiotic resistance. PLoS Biol 3 (6):el76.

Clarke, T. 2001. The stowaways. Nature 413 (6853):247-48.

Clinton, W. J. 2000. Speech by President on Completion of First Survey of En- tire Human Genome, http://www.clintonpresidentialcenter.org; accessed Octo- ber 24,2007.

CosentinoLagomarsino, M., P. Jona, . Bassetti, and H. Isambert. 2007. Hierarchy and feedback in the evolution of the Escherichia eoli transcription network. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 104 (13):5516-20.

Crabb, W. D., and J.K.Shetty. 1999. Commodity scale production of sugars from starches. Curr Opin Microbiol 2 (3):25256.

Crozat, E., N. Philippe, R. E. Lenski, J. Geiselmann, and D. Schneider.

2005. Long?term experimental evolution in Escherichia coli. XII. DNA topology as a key target of selection. Genetics 169 (2):52332.

Csete, M., and J. Doyle. 2004. Bow ties, metabolism and disease. Trends Biotechnol 22 (9):446-50.

Davis, Rowland H. 2003. The microbial models of molecular biology: From genes to genomes. New York: Oxford University Press.

Delbrck, M. 1954. On the replication of desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 40:783-88.

. 1969. Nobel lecture, http://nobelprize.org/nobel prizes/medicine/laureates /1969 / delbruck?lecture. html.

Demerec, M. 1948. Origin of bacterial resistance to antibiotics./ Bacteriol 56 (l):6374.

Denamur, E., 0. Tenaillon, C. Deschamps, D. Skurnik, E. Ronco, J. L. Gaillard, . Pi- card, C. Branger, andI. Matic. 2005. Intermediate mutation frequencies favor evo- lution of multidrug resistance in Escherichia eoli. Genetics 171 (2):825-27.

Dethlefsen, L., P. . Eckburg, E. M. Bik, and D.A.Relman. 2006. Assembly of the human intestinal microbiota. Trends Ecol Evol 21 (9):51723.

Dick, Steven J. 1998. Life on other worlds: The twentieth?century extraterrestrial life debate. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Dick, Steven J., and James Edgar Strick. 2004. The living universe: NASA and the devel- opment of astrobiology. New Brunswick, N. J.: Rutgers University Press.

Dolman, Claude E. 1970. Theodor Escherich. In Dictionary of scientific biography; ed. C. C. Gillispie. New York: Scribner.

Domka, J., J. Lee, T. Bansal, and .. Wood. 2007. Temporal gene- expression in Escherichia coli K-12 biofilms. Environ Microbiol 9

(2):332-46.

Doolittle, W. F. 2000. Uprooting the tree of life. Sei Am 282 (2):9095.

Doyle, J., D. L. Alderson, L. Li, S. Low, M. Roughan, S. Shalunov, R. Tanaka, and W. Willinger. 2005. The robust yet fragile nature of theInternet. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 102 (41):14497502.

Doyle, J., and M. Csete. 2005. Motifs, control, and stability. PLoS Bi'o/3 (ll):e392.

Dutton, Diana Barbara, Thomas A. Preston, and Nancy E. Pfund. 1988. Worse than the disease: Pitfalls of medical progress. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Echols, Harrison. 2001. Operators and promoters: The story of molecular biology and its creators. Ed. Carol Gross. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Elena, S. F., and R.E.Lenski. 2003. Evolution experiments with microorganisms: The dynamics and genetic bases of adaptation. Nat Rev Genet4 (6):457-69.

Elf, J., G. W. Li, andX.S.Xie. 2007. Probing transcription factor dynamics at the single- molecule level in a living cell. Science 316 (5828):119194.

Elliott, E. J., and R.M.Robins?Browne. 2005. Hemolytic uremic syndrome. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 35 (8):310-30.

Elowitz, . ., and S. Leibler. 2000. A synthetic oscillatory network of transcriptional regulators. Nature 403 (6767):335-38.

Elowitz, . B., A. J. Levine, E. D. Siggia, and P.S.Swain. 2002. Stochastic gene expres- sion in a single cell. Science 297 (5584):1183-86.

Endy, D. 2005. Foundations for engineering biology. Nature 438 (7067):449-53.

Escherich, T. 1989. The intestinal bacteria of the neonate and breast?fed infant. 1885. RevInfect Dis 11 (2):35256.

ETC Group. 2006. Global coalition sounds the alarm on synthetic biology, demands oversight and societal debate. Press release. http://www.etcgroup.0rg/upload/publication/8/Ol / nr_synthetic_ bio_19th_may_2006.pdf.

Evans, P. D., N. Mekel?Bobrov, E. J. Vallender, R. R. Hudson, and

B. T. Lahn. 2006.

Evidence that the adaptive allele of the brain size gene microcephalin introgressed into Homo sapiens from an archaic Homo lineage. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 103 (48):18178-83.

Favier, C. F., E. E. Vaughan, W. M. DeVos, and A.D.Akkermans. 2002. Molecular mon- itoring of succession of bacterial communities in human neonates. Appl Environ Microbiol 68 (l):219-26.

Feist, Adam M., Christopher S. Henry, JenniferL. Reed, Markus Krummenacker, Andrew R Joyce, Peter D. Karp, Linda J. Broadbelt, Vassily Hatzimanikatis, and Bernhard O. Palsson 2007. A genome?scale metabolic reconstruction for Escher- ichia coli K-12 MG1655 that accounts for 1260 ORFs and thermodynamic informa- tion. Mol SystBiol 3:121.

Ferens, W. A., R. Cobbold, and C.J.Hovde. 2006. Intestinal Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli bacteria mitigate bovine leukemia virus infection in experimentally infected sheep. InfectImmun 74 (5):290616.

Forster, A. C., and G.M.Church. 2006. Towards synthesis of a minimal cell. Mol SystBiol 2:45.

Foster, J. W. 2004. Escherichia coli acid resistance: Tales of an amateur acidophile. NatRev Microbiol 2 (ll):898907.

Foster, K. R., . Parkinson, and C.R.Thompson. 2007. What can microbial genetics teach sociobiology? Trends Genet 23 (2):7480.

Francino, M. P. 2005. An adaptive radiation model for the origin of new gene func- tions. Nat Genet 37 (6):573-77.

Fricker, E. J., M. Spigelman, and C.R.Fricker. 1997. The detection of Escherichia coli

DNA in the ancient remains ofLindow Man using the polymerase chain reaction. Lett Appl Microbiol 24 (5):35154.

Friedmann, H. C. 2004. From Butyribacterium to E. coli: An essay on unity in biochemistry. PerspectBiol Med 47 (1):4766.

Frost, L. S., R. Leplae, A. O. Summers, and A. Toussaint. 2005. Mobile genetic elements: The agents of open source evolution. Nat Rev Microbiol 3 (9):722-32.

Gamage, S. D., A.. Patton, J. F. Hanson, and A.A.Weiss. 2004. Diversity and host range of Shiga toxin encoding phage. InfectImmun 72 (12):713139.

Gamag e, S. D., A. K. Patton, J. E. Str asser, C. L. Chalk, and A.A.Weiss.

2006. Commensal bacteria influence Escherichia eoli 0157: H7 persistence and Shiga toxin produc- tion in the mouse intestine. InfectImmun 74 (3):1977-83.

Gamage, S. D., J. E. Strasser, C. L. Chalk, and A.A.Weiss. 2003. Nonpathogenic Escherichia eoli can contribute to the production of Shiga toxin. InfectImmun 71 (6):310715.

Gardner, A., S. A. West, and A. Buckling. 2004. Bacteriocins, spite and virulence. ProcBiol Sei 271 (1547):152935.

Gardner, T. S., C. R. Cantor, and J.J.Collins. 2000. Construction of a genetic toggle switch in Escherichia eoli. Nature 403 (6767):339-42.

Ge, F., L. S. Wang, and J. Kim. 2005. The cobweb of life revealed by genome?scale esti- mates of horizontal gene transfer. PLoS Biol

3 (10):e316.

Gelman, S. A. 2004. Psychological essentialism in children. Trends Cogn Sei 8 (9):404-9.

George, R. P., and A. Gomez?Lobo. 2005. The moral status of the human embryo. PerspectBiol Med 48 (2):201-10.

Gesteland, Raymond F., Thomas Cech, and John F. Atkins. 2006. The RNA world: The nature of modern RNA suggests a prebiotic RNA. 3rd ed. Cold Spring Harbor Monograph Series 43. Cold Spring Harbor, N. Y.: Cold Spring HarborLaboratory Press. Ghannoum, Mahmoud A., and George A. OToole. 2004. Microbial biofilms. Washington, D. C.: ASM Press.

Gladman, B., L. Dones, H. F. Levison, andJ. A. Burns. 2005. Impact seeding and reseed- ing in the inner solar system. Astrobiology 5 (4):483-96.

Goehring, N. W., and J. Beckwith. 2005. Diverse paths to midcell: Assembly of the bacterial cell division machinery. Curr Biol 15

(13):R514-26.

Gorvel, J. P. 2006. Microbiology: Bacterial bushwacking through a microtubule jungle. Science 314 (5801):93132.

Gould, Stephen Jay. 1989. Wonderful life: The Burgess Shale and the nature of history. New York: W. W. Norton.

Graham, J. P., J. J. Boland, and E. Silbergeld. 2007. Growth?promoting antibiotics in food animal production: An economic analysis. Public Health Reports 122 (l):7987. Gray, C. H., and E.L.Tatum. 1944. X?ray induced growth factor requirements in bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 30 (12):404-10.

Haldane, J. B. S. 1923. Daedalus; or, Science and the future: A paper read to the Heretics,

Cambridge, on February 4 th, 1 9 23.http://www.cscs.umich.edu/~crshalizi/Daedalus.html; accessed October 24,2007.

Hall, Stephen S. 2002. Invisible frontiers: The race to synthesize a human gene. New York: Oxford University Press.

Harold, F. M. 2005. Molecules into cells: Specifying spatial architecture. Microbiol MolBiol Rev 69 (4):544-64.

Hartwig, Mark. 2002. Whose comfortable myth? Focus on the Family, June 2002.

Heitkamp, M. A., J. F. Kane, P. J. Morris, M. Bianchini, M. D. Hale, and G. Bogosian. 1993. Fate in sewage of a recombinant Escherichia coli K-12 strain used in the commercial production of bovine somatotropin./Ind Microbiol 11 (4):243-52.

Hejnova, J., U. Dobrindt, R. Nemcova, C. Rusniok, A. Bomba, L. Frangeul, J. Hacker, P. Glaser, P. Sebo, and C. Buchrieser. 2005. Characterization of the flexible genome complement of the commensal Escherichia coli strain A0 34/86 (083: K24: H31). Microbiology 151 (pt. 2):385-98.

Herring, C. D., A. Raghunathan, C. Hnisch, T. Patel, M. K. Applebee,

A. R. Joyce, T. J. Albert, F. R. Blattner, D. van den Boom, C. R. Cantor, and

B. O. Palsson. 2006. Comparative genome sequencing of Escherichia coli allows observation of bacterial evo- lution on a laboratory timescale. Nat Genet 38 (12):140612.

Hershey, A.D., and M. Chase. 1952. Independent functions of viral protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage. J Gen Physiol 36 (1):3956.

Higgins, Norman Patrick. 2005. The bacterial chromosome. Washington, D. C.: ASM Press.

Holmes, FrederickLawrence. 2001. Meselson, Stahl, and the replication ofDNA: A history of the most beautiful experiment in biology.New Haven: Yale University Press.

Hou, Shaobin, Jimmy H. Saw, Kit ShanLee, Tracey A. Freitas, Claude Belisle, Yutaka Kawarabayasi, Stuart P. Donachie, Alla Pikina, Michael Y. Galperin, EugeneV. Koonin, Kira S. Makarova, MarinaV. Omelchenko, Alexander Sorokin, YuriI. Wolf, QingX. Li, Young Soo Keum, Sonia Campbell, Judith Denery, Shin?Ichi Aizawa, Satoshi Shibata, Alexander Malahoff, and Maqsudul Alam. 2004. Genome sequence of the deep?seaproteobacteriumIdiomarina loihiensis reveals amino acid fermen- tation as a source of carbon and energy. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 101 (52):18036-41.

Humes, Edward. 2007. Monkey girl: Evolution, education, religion, and the battle for Americas soul. New York: Ecco.

Inoue, T., R. Shingaki, S. Hirose, K. Waki, H. Mori, and K. Fukui. 2007. Genome?wide screening of genes required for swarming motility in Escherichia coli K-12.JBacte- riol 189 (3):95057.

Jackson, David Archer, and Stephen P. Stich. 1979. The recombinant DNA debate. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice?Hall.

Jacob, Franois. 1995. The statue within: An autobiography. Cold Spring Harbor, N. Y.: Cold Spring HarborLaboratory Press.

Jennison, A. V., and N.K.Verma. 2004. Shigella flexneri infection: Pathogenesis and vaccine development. FEMS Microbiol Rev 28 (1):4358.

Jones, Nancy. 2006. Round three mixing and matching biological building blocks: Mouse?human chimeras are here! Center for Bioethics and Human Dignity, http://www.cbhd.0rg/res0urces/b iotech/jones_2006-01-20.htm.

Jones, Shari A., F. A. Chowdhury, et al. 2007. Respiration of Escherichia eoli in the mouse intestine. InfectImmun 75:4891-99.

Judson, Horace Freeland. 1996. The eighth day of creation: Makers of the revolution in biology. Expanded ed. Cold Spring Harbor, N. Y.: Cold Spring HarborLaboratory Press.

Jun, S., and B. Mulder. 2006. Entropy?driven spatial organization of highly confined polymers: Lessons for the bacterial chromosome. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 103 (33):12388-93.

Kalir, S., S. Mangan, and U. Alon. 2005. A coherent feed?forward loop with a SUM input function prolongs flagella expression in Escherichia eoli. Mol SystBiol 1:2005.0006.

Kaper, J. B. 2005. Pathogenic Escherichia eoli. IntJMed Microbiol 295 (67):35556.

Karch, H., P. I. Tarr, and M. Bielaszewska. 2005. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia eoli in human medicine. Int J Med Microbiol 295 (67):405-18.

Karp, . D., I. M. Kessler, A. Shearer, et al. 2007. Multidimensional annotation of the Escherichia coli. K-12 genome. Nucleic Acids Res 35:7577-90.

Kass, Leon. 1997. National Bioethics Advisory Commission. Testimony of March 14.

CyberCemetery. University of North TexasLibraries. http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/nbac/tr anscript/1997/3-14-97.pdf.

Kass, Leon, and James Q. Wilson. 1998. The ethics of human cloning. Washington, D. C.: ??? Press.

Kerr, B., M. A. Riley, M. W. Feldman, and B.J.Bohannan. 2002. Local dispersal promotes biodiversity in a real?life game of rock?paper- scissors. Nature 418 (6894):171-74.

Kirkup, . C., and M.A.Riley. 2004. Antibiotic?mediated antagonism leads to a bacterial game of rock?paper?scissors in vivo. Nature 428 (6981):412-14.

Kobayashi, 1.2001. Behavior of restriction?modification systems as selfish mobile ele- ments and their impact on genome evolution. Nucleic Acids Res 29 (18):3742-56. Krawinkel, M. B. 2007. What we know and dont know about Golden Rice. Nat Biotechnol 25 (6):623.

Krimsky, Sheldon. 1982. Genetic alchemy: The social history of the recombinant DNA controversy. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Kropotkin, Petr Alekseevich. 1919. Mutual aid: A factor of evolution. New York: Alfred

A. Knopf. Kurata, H., H. El?Samad, R. Iwasaki, H. Ohtake, J. C. Doyle, I. Grigorova, C. A. Gross, and M. Khammash. 2006. Module?based analysis of robustness tradeoffs in the heat shock response system. PLoS ComputBiol 2 (7):e59.

Kusseil, E., R. Kishony, N. Q. Balaban, and S. Leibler. 2005. Bacterial persistence: A model of survival in changing environments. Genetics 169 (4):1807-14.

La Duc, M. T., K. Venkateswaran, R. Sumner, and D. Pierson. 2004. Characterization and monitoring of microbes in the international space station drinking water. Beacon eSpace. Jet PropulsionLaboratory, http://hdl.handle.net/2014/37245.

Lamarck, Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet de. 1984. Zoological philosophy: An exposition with regard to the natural history of animals. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Lambert, C., K. J. Evans, R. Till, L. Hobley, M. Capeness, S. Rendulic, S. C. Schuster, S. Aizawa, and R.E.Sockett. 2006. Characterizing the flagellar filament and the role of motility in bacterial prey?penetration by Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus. Mol Micro- biol 60 (2):274-86.

Lawrence, J. G., and H. Ochman. 1998. Molecular archaeology of the Escherichia eoli genome. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 95 (16):941317.

Lawrence, S. 2007a. Agbiotech booms in emerging nations. Nat Biotechnol 25 (3):271.

2007b. State of the biotech sector 2006. Nat Biotechol

25:706.

Lederberg, J. 1946. Bacterial genetics. JoshuaLederberg: Biomedical Science and the PublicInterest. NationalLibrary of Medicine, http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/lederberg/bacterial/html.

1960. Exobiology: Approaches to life beyond the earth.

Science 132 (3424):393400.

1963. Life beyond Earth. Stanford Today, Winter.

1987. Genetic recombination in bacteria: A discovery

account. Annu Rev Genet 21:2346.

Lederberg, J., and E.M.Lederberg. 1952. Replica plating and indirect selection of bacterial mutants. JBacteriol 63 (3):399406.

Lenski, R. 2003. The ecology, genetics and evolution of bacteria in an experimental set- ting. Curr Biol 13 (12):R466-67.

Lerat, E., V. Daubin, H. Ochman, and N.A.Moran. 2005. Evolutionary origins of genomic repertoires in bacteria. PLoS Biol 3 (5):el30.

Levskaya, A., A. A. Chevalier, J. J. Tabor, Z. B. Simpson, L. A. Lavery, M. Levy, E. A. Davidson, A. Scouras, A.D. Ellington, E. M. Marcotte, and

C. A. Voigt. 2005. Syn- thetic biology: Engineering Escherichia eoli to see light. Nature 438 (7067):441-42.

Levy, Stuart B. 2002. The antibiotic paradox: How the misuse of antibiotics destroys their curative powers. 2nd ed. Cambridge, Mass.: Perseus.

Lewis, K. 2005. Persister cells and the riddle of biofilm survival. Biochemistry (Mosc) 70 (2):267-74.

2007. Persister cells, dormancy, and infectious disease. Nat

Rev Microbiol 5 (l):4856.

Lim, H. N., and A. van Oudenaarden. 2007. A multistep epigenetic switch enables the stable inheritance of DNA mthylation states. Nat Genet 39 (2):269-75.

Lumsden, Richard D. 1994. Not so blind a watchmaker. Creation Research Society Quar- terly fournal 31 (1).

Luria, S. E. 1984. A slot machine, a broken test tube: An autobiography. Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Series. New York: Harper & Row.

Luria, S. E., and M. Delbrck. 1943. Mutations of bacteria from virus sensitivity to virus resistance. Genetics 28 (6):491511.

Luria, S. E., M. Delbrck, and T.F.Anderson. 1943. Electron microscope studies of bacterial viruses. JBacteriol 46 (1):5777.

Ma, H. W., and A.P.Zeng. 2003. The connectivity structure, giant strong component and centrality of metabolic networks. Bioinformatics 19 (11):142330.

Margolin, W. 2005. FtsZ and the division of prokaryotic cells and organelles. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6 (11):862-71.

Marshall, R. E., C. T. Caskey, and M. Nirenberg. 1967. Fine structure of RNA codewords recognized by bacterial, amphibian, and mammalian transfer RNA. Science 155 (764):820-26.

Matz, C., and S. Kjelleberg. 2005. Off the hook how bacteria survive protozoan graz- ing. Trends Microbiol 13 (7):302-7.

Matz, C., D. McDougald, A.M. Moreno, P. Y. Yung, F. H. Yildiz, and S. Kjelleberg. 2005. Biofilm formation and phenotypic variation enhance predation?driven persistence ofVibrio cholerae. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 102 (46):16819-24.

McElheny, Victor. 1976. Hunt for evidence of life on Mars is still a puzzle. New York Times, August 11,1976.

Meltz Steinberg, ?., and B.R.Levin. 2007. Grazing protozoa and the evolution of the Escherichia coli 0157: H7 Shiga toxin encoding prophage. Proc Biol Sei 274 (1621):192429.

Meselson, M., and F.W.Stahl. 1958. The replication of DNA in Escherichia coli. Proc Nat Acad Sei USA 44:671-82.

Mettetal, J. T., D. Muzzey, J. M. Pedraza, E. M. Ozbudak, and A. van Oudenaarden. 2006. Predicting stochastic gene expression dynamics in single cells. Proc Natl AcadSci USA 103 (19):7304-9.

Michaelian, K. 2005. Thermodynamic stability of ecosystems./ Theor Biol 237 (3):323-35.

Michod, R. E. 2007. Evolution of individuality during the transition from unicellular to multicellular life. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 104

(1):S8613-18.

Milo, R., S. Shen?Orr, S. Itzkovitz, N. Kashtan, D. Chklovskii, and U. Alon. 2002. Net- work motifs: Simple building blocks of complex networks. Science 298 (5594):824-27. Mira, A., R. Pushker, and F. Rodriguez?Valera. 2006. The Neolithic revolution of bacterial genomes. Trends Microbiol 14 (5):200206.

Morbey, Y. E., Brassil, and A.P.Hendry. 2005. Rapid senescence in Pacific salmon. Am Nat 166 (5):55668.

Mrak, P., Z. Podlesek, J. P. van Putten, and D. Zgur?Bertok. 2007. Heterogeneity in expression of the Escherichia coli colicin activity gene is controlled by the SOS system and stochastic factors. Mol Genet Genomics 277 (4):391401.

Mulec, J., Z. Podlesek, P. Mrak, A. Kopitar, A. Ihan, and D. Zgur- Bertok. 2003. A cka?gfp transcriptional fusion reveals that the colicin activity gene is induced in only 3 percent of the population./ Bacteriol 185 (2):654-59.

Mller?Hill, Benno. 1996. The lac operon: A short history of a genetic paradigm. New

York: Walter de Gruyter.

Myllykangas, S., J. Himberg, T. Bhling, . Nagy, J. Hollmn, and S. Knuutila. 2006. DNA copy number amplification profiling of human neoplasms. Oncogene 25 (55):732432.

Napier, W. M. 2004. A mechanism for interstellar panspermia. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 348 (1):4651.

Nash, J. M. 2000. Grains of hope. Time, July 31,2000,3846.

National Academy of Sciences. 1977. Research with recombinant DNA: An Academy Forum, March 79, 1977. Washington, D. C.: National Academy of Sciences.

Naylor, S. W., D. L. Gaily, and J.C.Low. 2005. Enterohaemorrhagic E. eoli in veterinary medicine. IntJMed Microbiol 295 (67):419-41.

Neidhardt, Frederick C. 1996. Escherichia eoli and Salmonella: Cellular and molecular biology. 2nd ed. Washington, D. C.: ASM Press.

Nicholson, J. ?., E. Holmes, andI.D.Wilson. 2005. Gut microorganisms, mammalian metabolism and personalized health care. Nat Rev Microbiol 3 (5):43138.

Nielsen, K. M., andJ. P. Townsend. 2004. Monitoring and modeling horizontal gene transfer. Nat Biotechnol 22 (9):111014.

Noireaux, V., R. Bar?Ziv, J. Godefroy, H. Salman, and A. Libchaber.

2005. Toward an artificial cell based on gene expression in vesicles. PhysBiol 2(3):Pl-8.

Nordenberg, T. 1999. Maker of growth hormone feels long arm of law. FDA Consum 33 (5):33.

Norris, V., T. den Blaauwen, A. Cabin?Flaman, R. H. Doi, R. Harshey, L. Janniere, A. Jimenez?Sanchez, D. J. Jin, P. A. Levin, E. Mileykovskaya,

A. Minsky, M. Saier Jr., and K. Skarstad. 2007. Functional taxonomy of bacterial hyperstructures. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 71 (1):23053.

Novick, A., and M. Weiner. 1957. Enzyme induction as an all?or- none phenomenon. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 43 (7):553-66.

Nystrom, T. 2004. Stationary?phase physiology. Annu Rev Microbiol 58:161-81.

ODonnell, . 2006. Replisome architecture and dynamics in Escherichia coli. JBiolChem 281 (16):1065356.

Ostrowski, E. A., D. E. Rozen, and R.E.Lenski. 2005. Pleiotropic effects of beneficial mutations in Escherichia coli. EvolutionIntJOrg Evolution 59 (ll):2343-52.

Ouzounis, C. A., V. Kunin, N. Darzentas, andL. Goldovsky. 2006. A minimal estimate for the gene content of the last universal common ancestor exobiology from a terrestrial perspective. Res Microbiol 157 (1):5768.

Owen, M. D., andI.A.Zelaya. 2005. Herbicide?resistant crops and weed resistance to herbicides. Pest Manag Sei 61 (3):30111.

Ozbudak, E. M., M. Thattai, H. N. Lim, . I. Shraiman, and A. Van Oudenaarden. 2004. Multistability in the lactose utilization network of Escherichia coli. Nature 427 (6976):73740.

Pallen, M. J., and N.J.Matzke. 2006. From The Origin of Species to the origin of bacterial flagella. Nat Rev Microbiol 4 (10):784~90.

Park, H. K., S. S. Shim, S. Y. Kim, J. H. Park, S. E. Park, H. J. Kim,

B. C. Kang, and C. M.

Kim. 2005. Molecular analysis of colonized bacteria in a human newborn infant gut./Microbiol 43 (4):34553.

Park, S., P.M. Wolanin, E. A. Yuzbashyan, P. SilberzanJ. B. Stock, and R.H.Austin. 2003. Motion to form a quorum. Science 301 (5630):188.

Patrick, W. M., E. M. Quandt, D. V. Swartzlander, andI. Matsumura.

2007. Multicopy suppression underpins metabolic evolvability. Mol Bio Evo 24 (12):271622.

Pelosi, L., L. Kuhn, D. Guetta, J. Garin, J. Geiselmann, R. E. Lenski, and D. Schneider. 2006. Parallel changes in global protein profiles during long?term experimental evolution in Escherichia coli. Genetics 173 (4):185169.

Pennington, T. H. 2003. When food kills: BSE, E. coli, and disaster science. New York: Oxford University Press.

Perfeito, L., L. Fernandes, C. Mota, andI. Gordo. 2007. Adaptive mutations in bacteria: High rate and small effects. Science 317:813-15.

Perna, N. T., G. PlunkettIII, V. Burland, B. Mau, J. D. Glasner, D. J. Rose, G. F. Mayhew, P. S. Evans, J. Gregor, H. A. Kirkpatrick, G. Posfai, J. Hackett, S. Klink, A. Boutin, Y. Shao, L. Miller, E. J. Grotbeck, N. W. Davis, A. Lim, E. T. Dimalanta, K. D. Pota- mousis, J. Apodaca, T. S. Anantharaman, J. Lin, G. Yen, D. C. Schwartz, R. A. Welch, and

F. R. Blattner. 2001. Genome sequence of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli 0157: H7. Nature 409 (6819):529-33.

Perron, G. G., M. Zasloff, and G. Bell. 2006. Experimental evolution of resistance to an antimicrobial peptide. Proc Biol Sei 273 (1583):25156.

Peschel, A., and H.G.Sahl. 2006. The co?evolution of host cationic antimicrobial pep- tides and microbial resistance. Nat Rev Microbiol

4 (7):529-36.

Ponder, R. G., N. C. Fonville, and S.M.Rosenberg. 2005. A switch from high?fidelity to error?prone DNA double?strand break repair underlies stress?induced mutation. Mol Cell 19 (6):791804.

Potrykus, I. 2001. Golden Rice and beyond. Plant Physiol 125

(3):115761.

Power, M. L., J. Littlefield?Wyer, D. M. Gordon, D. A. Veal, and M.B.Slade. 2005. Phe- notypic and genotypic characterization of encapsulated Escherichia eoli isolated from blooms in two Australian lakes. Environ Microbiol 7 (5):63140.

Queitsch, C., T. A. Sangster, and S. Lindquist. 2002. Hsp90 as a capacitor of phenotypic variation. Nature 417 (6889):618-24.

Raney, T. 2006. Economic impact of transgenic crops in developing countries. Curr Opin Biotechnol 17 (2):17478.

Rangel, J. M., P. H. Sparling, C. Crowe, P.M. Griffin, and

D. L. Swerdlow. 2005. Epi- demiology of Escherichia eoli 0157: H7 outbreaks, United States, 19822002. EmergInfect Dis 11 (4):603-9.

Raser, J. M., and E.K.OShea. 2005. Noise in gene expression: Origins, consequences, and control. Science 309 (5743):201013.

Rasheed, J. ., . Jay, . Metchock, F. Berkowitz, L. Weigel, J. Crellin,

C. Steward, B. Hill, A. A. Medeiros, and F.C.Tenover. 1997. Evolution of extended?spectrum beta- lactam resistance (SHV-8) in a strain of Escherichia eoli during multiple episodes of bacteremia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother4 (3):64753.

Raymond, J., and D. Segre. 2006. The effect of oxygen on biochemical networks and the evolution of complex life. Science 311 (5768):1764-67.

Reinhold, Robert. 1969. Scientists isolate a gene: Steps in heredity control. New York Times, November 22,1969.

Reisner, A., K. A. Krogfelt, B. M. Klein, E. L. Zechner, and S. Molin. 2006. In vitro biofilm formation of commensal and pathogenic Escherichia eoli strains: Impact of environmental and genetic factors. fBacteriol 188 (10):3572-81.

Remold, S. ?., and R.E.Lenski. 2004. Pervasive joint influence of epistasis and plastic- ity on mutational effects in Escherichia eoli. Nat Genet 36 (4):423-26.

Ren, C. R, S. A. Beatson, J. Parkhill, and M.J.Pallen. 2005. The Flag-2 locus, an ancestral gene cluster, is potentially associated with a novel flagellar system from Escherichia coli. JBacteriol 187

(4):143040.

Roberts, Richard B. 1955. Studies of biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Washington, D. C.: CarnegieInstitution.

Robicsek, A., J. Strahilevitz, G. A. Jacoby, M. Macielag, D. Abbanat,

C. H. Park, K. Bush, and D.C.Hooper. 2006. Fluoroquinolone- modifying enzyme: A new adaptation of a common aminoglycoside acetyltransferase. Nat Med 12 (1):8388.

Rogers, Michael. 1977. Biohazard. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Roth, J. R., E. Kugelberg, A. B. Reams, E. Kofoid, and D.I.Andersson.

2006. Origin of mutations under selection: The adaptive mutation controversy. Annu Rev Microbiol 60:477501.

Rozen, D. E., D. Schneider, and R.E.Lenski. 2005. Long?term experimental evolution in Escherichia coli. XIII. Phylogenetic history of a balanced polymorphism./Mol Evol 61 (2):17180.

Salyers, Abigail A., and Dixie D. Whitt. 2005. Revenge of the microbes: How bacterial resistance is undermining the antibiotic miracle. Washington, D. C.: ASM Press.

Sandermann, H. 2006. Plant biotechnology: Ecological case studies on herbicide resistance. Trends Plant Sei 11 (7):324-28.

Sansonetti, P. J. 2006. Shigellosis: An old disease in new clothes? PLoSMed 3(9):e354.

Sapp, J. 1994. Evolution by association: A history of symbiosis. New York: Oxford University Press.

2005. The prokaryote?eukaryote dichotomy: Meanings and

mythology.

Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 69 (2):292305.

Sauer, U. 2006. Metabolic networks in motion: 13C?based flux analysis. Mol SystBiol 2:62.

Sauer, U., M. Heinemann, and N. Zamboni. 2007. Genetics: Getting closer to the whole picture. Science 316 (5824):550-51.

Schaechter, Moselio, JohnL. Ingraham, and Frederick C. Neidhardt.

2006. Microbe. Washington, D. C.: ASM Press.

Schnapp, N., and Q. Schiermeier. 2001. Critics claim sight?saving rice is over?rated. Nature 410 (6828):503.

Schneider, D., and R.E.Lenski. 2004. Dynamics of insertion sequence elements during experimental evolution of bacteria. Res Microbiol 155 (5):319-27.

Scott, . T. 2006. Chimeras in the crosshairs. Nat Biotechnol 24

(5):48790.

Segerstrale, Ullica. In press. Natures oracle: A life ofW. D. Hamilton. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Service, Robert F. 2003. Researchers create first autonomous synthetic life form. Science

299 (5607):640.

2007. A growing threat down on the farm. Science 316

(5828):111417.

Shaikh, N., and P.I.Tarr. 2003. Escherichia eoli 0157: H7 Shiga toxin encoding bacteriophages: Integrations, excisions, truncations, and evolutionary implications. JBacteriol 185 (12):3596605.

Shapiro, J., L. Machattie, L. Eron, G. Ihler, K. Ippen, and J. Beckwith. 1969. Isolation of pure lac operon DNA. Nature 224 (5221):768-74.

Shi, W., and D.R.Zusman. 1993. Fatal attraction. Nature 366 (6454):414-15.

Shin, T., D. Kraemer, J. Pryor, L. Liu, J. Rugila, L. Howe, S. Buck, K. Murphy, L. Lyons, and M. Westhusin. 2002. A cat cloned by nuclear transplantation. Nature 415 (6874):859. Shnayerson, Michael, and Mark J. Plotkin. 2002. The killers within: The deadly rise of drug resistant bacteria. Boston: Little, Brown.

Silver, Lee M. 2006. Challenging nature: The clash of science and spirituality at the fron

tiers of life. New York: Ecco.

Sinervo, B. 2001. Runaway social games, genetic cycles driven by alternative male and female strategies, and the origin of morphs. Genetica 112-13:417-34.

Singer, M. 2001. What did the Asilomar exercise accomplish, what did it leave undone? PerspectBiol Med 44 (2):186-91.

Spencer, C. C., M. Bertrand, M. Travisano, and M. Doebeli.

2007. Adaptive diversifica- tion in genes that regulate resource use in Escherichia eoli. PLoS Genet 3 (l):el5. Spudich, J. L., and

D. E. Koshland Jr. 1976. Non?genetic individuality: Chance in the single cell. Nature 262 (5568):467-71.

Stahl, Franklin W. 2001. Alfred Day Hershey. Biographical Memoirs 80. Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press.

Stein, A. J., H. P. Sachdev, and M. Qaim. 2006. Potential impact and cost?effectiveness of Golden Rice. Nat Biotechnol 24 (10):12001201.

Stenuit, B., L. Eyers, R. Rozenberg, J. L. Habib?Jiwan, and S.N.Agathos. 2006. Aerobic growth of Escherichia eoli with 2,4,6trinitrotoluene (TNT) as the sole nitrogen source and evidence of TNT denitration by whole cells and cell?free extracts. Appl Environ Microbiol 72 (12):7945-48.

Stewart, E. J., R. Madden, G. Paul, and F. Taddei. 2005. Aging and death in an organism that reproduces by morphologically symmetric division. PLoS Biol 3 (2):e45.

Sullivan, Woodruff T., and John Baross, eds. 2007. Planets and life: The emerging science of astrobiology. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Talbot, M. 2005. Darwin in the dock. New Yorker, December 5,2005.

TalkOrigins Archive. 2006. Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District, Dover, Pennsylvania

Intelligent Design Case, http://talkorigins.org/faqs/dover/kitz miller jv dover. html. Tanaka, R., M. Csete, and J. Doyle. 2005. Highly optimised global organisation of metabolic networks. Syst Biol (Stevenage) 152 (4):179-84.

Tarr, P. I., C. A. Gordon, and W.L.Chandler. 2005. Shiga?toxin- producing Escherichia coli and haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Lancet 365 (9464):1073-86.

Tatum, E. L., and J. Lederberg. 1947. Gene recombination in the bacterium Escherichia coli. JBacteriol 53 (6):673-84.

Tenaillon, ., E. Denamur, andI. Matic. 2004. Evolutionary significance of stress- induced mutagenesis in bacteria. Trends Microbiol 12 (6):264-70.

Tenover, F. C. 2006. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Am JMed 119 (6 Suppl. 1):S3-10, discussion S62-70.

Thanbichler, M., andL. Shapiro. 2006. Chromosome organization and segregation in bacteria./Struct Biol 156 (2):292303.

Thiem, S., D. Kentner, andV. Sourjik. 2007. Positioning of chemosensory clusters in E. coli and its relation to cell division. Embo /26 (6):161523.

Thomas, W. E., L. M. Nilsson, M. Forero, E. V. Sokurenko, andV. Vogel. 2004. Shear- dependent stick?and?roll adhesion of type 1 fimbriated Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol 53 (5):1545-57.

Thornton, I. W. B. 1996. Krakatau: The destruction and reassembly of an island ecosystem. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Tomitani, A., A. H. Knoll, C. M. Cavanaugh, and T. Ohno. 2006. The evolutionary diversification of cyanobacteria: Molecular- phylogenetic and paleontological per- spectives. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 103 (14):5442-47.

Travisano, ., J. A. Mongold, A. F. Bennett, and R.E.Lenski. 1995. Experimental tests of the roles of adaptation, chance, and history in evolution. Science 267 (5194):8790.

Trinh, C. T., R. Carlson, A. Wlaschin, and F. Srienc. 2006. Design, construction and performance of the most efficient biomass- producing E. eoli bacterium. Metab Eng 8 (6):62838.

U.S.Congress. Senate. 2005. Human Chimera Prohibition Act of 2005. S 659.109th Cong., 1st sess.

U.S.Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Pre- vention. 2006. Multi?state outbreak of

E. eoli 0157: H7 infections from spinach. September October. http://www.cdc.gov/ecoli2006/September/.

Van Till, Howard J. 2002. E. eoli at the No FreeLunchroom: Bacterial flagella and Dembskis case for intelligent design. American Association for the Advancement of Science. http://www.aaas.org/spp/dser /03_Areas/evolution/perspectives/ vantillecoli_2002.pdf.

Varma, J. K., K. D. Greene, M. E. Relier, S. M. DeLong, J. Trottier, S. F. Nowicki, M. DiOrio, E. M. Koch, T. L. Bannerman, S. T. York, M. A. Lambert?Fair, J. G. Wells, and P.S.Mead. 2003. An outbreak of Escherichia eoli 0157 infection following expo- sure to a contaminated building./ 290 (20):2709-12.

Vulic', M., and R. Kolter. 2001. Evolutionary cheating in Escherichia eoli stationary phase cultures. Genetics 158 (2):519-26.

Wade, Nicholas. 1977. The ultimate experiment: Man?made evolution. New York: Walker.

Walters, M., andV. Sperandio. 2006. Quorum sensing in Escherichia eoli and Salmonella. Int J Med Microbiol 296 (23):12531.

Wandersman, C., and P. Delepelaire. 2004. Bacterial iron sources: From siderophores to hemophores. Annu Rev Microbiol 58:611-47.

Wang, L., J. Xie, and P.G.Schultz. 2006. Expanding the genetic code. Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct 35:225-49.

Warmflash, D., and B. Weiss. 2005. Did life come from another world? Sei Am 293(5):6471.

Watanabe, T. 1963. Infective heredity of multiple drug resistance in bacteria. BacteriolRev 27:87-115.

Watson, James D. 1969. The double helix: A personal account of the discovery of the structure of DNA. New York: New AmericanLibrary.

Watson, James D., and John Tooze. 1981. The DNA story: A documentary history of genecloning. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.

Welch, R. A., V. Burland, G. PlunkettIII, P. Redford, P. Roesch,

D. Rasko, E. L. Buckles, S. R. Liou, A. Boutin, J. Hackett, D. Stroud,

G. F. Mayhew, D. J. Rose, S. Zhou, D. C. Schwartz, N. T. Perna, H. L. Mobley, M. S. Donnenberg, and F.R.Blattner. 2002. Extensive mosaic structure revealed by the complete genome sequence of uropath- ogenic Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 99 (26):17020-24.

Wells, H. G. 1896. The island of Dr. Moreau. Garden City, N. Y.: Garden City Publishing.

West, S. A., A. S. Griffin, A. Gardner, and S.P.Diggle. 2006. Social evolution theory for microorganisms. Nat Rev Microbiol 4 (8):597607.

White?Ziegler, C. A., A. J. Malhowski, and S. Young. 2007. Human body temperature (37 C) increases the expression of iron, carbohydrate, and amino acid utilization genes in Escherichia coli K-12 .JBacteriol 189:5429-40.

Wick, L. M., W. Qi, D. W. Lacher, and T.S.Whittam. 2005. Evolution of genomic content in the stepwise emergence of Escherichia coli 0157: W. JBacteriol 187 (5):1783-91.

Willenbrock, H., and D.W.Ussery. 2004. Chromatin architecture and gene expression in Escherichia coli. Genome Biol 5 (12):252.

Williams, G. C. 1966. Adaptation and natural selection. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

1999. The 1999 Crafoord Prize lectures. The Tithonus error

in modern geron- tology. Q Rev Biol 74 (4):405-15.

Wirth, T., D. Falush, R. Lan, F. Colles, P. Mensa, L. H. Wieler, H. Karch, P. R. Reeves, M. C. Maiden, H. Ochman, and M. Achtman. 2006. Sex and virulence in Escherichia coli: An evolutionary perspective. Mol Microbiol 60 (5):113651.

Wise, R., and E.J.Soulsby. 2002. Antibiotic resistance an evolving problem. Vet Ree 151 (13):371-72.

Woese, C. R., and G.E.Fox. 1977. Phylogenetic structure of the prokaryotic domain: The primary kingdoms. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 74 (11):508890.

Woldringh, C. L., and N. Nanninga. 2006. Structural and physical aspects of bacterial chromosome segregation. J Struct Biol 156

(2):273-83.

Wolf, D. M., V. V. Vazirani, and A.P.Arkin. 2005. Diversity in times of adversity: Prob- abilistic strategies in microbial survival games./ Theor Biol 234 (2):227-53.

Wolfe, A. J. 2005. The acetate switch. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 69 (1):1250.

Woods, R., D. Schneider, C. L. Winkworth, M. A. Riley, and R.E.Lenski. 2006. Tests of parallel molecular evolution in a longterm experiment with Escherichia eoli. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 103 (24):910712.

Wright, Susan. 1994. Molecular politics: Developing American and British regulatory pol- icy for genetic engineering, 19721982. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Xavier, J. B., and K.R.Foster. 2007. Cooperation and conflict in microbial biofilms. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 104 (3):876-81.

Zelaya, Ian A., Michael D.K.Owen, and Mark J. VanGessel. 2007. Transfer of gly- phosate resistance: Evidence of hybridization in Conyza (Asteraceae). Am fBot94 (4):660-73.

Zhang, W., W. Qi, T. J. Albert, A. S. Motiwala, D. Alland, E. K. Hyytia- Trees, E. M. Ribot, P. I. Fields, T. S. Whittam, and B. Swaminathan. 2006. Probing genomic diversity and evolution of Escherichia eoli 0157 by single nucleotide polymorphisms. Genome Res 16 (6):757-67.

Zhou, T. J.M. Carlson, and J. Doyle. 2005. Evolutionary dynamics and highly opti- mized tolerance. / Theor Biol 236 (4):438-47.

Zilinskas, Raymond A., and Burke K. Zimmerman. 1986. The gene- splicing wars: Reflec- tions on the recombinant DNA controversy. New York: Macmillan.

Zimmer, C. 2004. George C. Williams profile: Stretching the limits of evolutionary biology. Science 304 (5675):123536.

. 2006. Did DNA come from viruses? Science 312 (5775):87072.

2007a. Evolved for cancer? Sei Am 296 (l):6874,75A.

2007b. Fast?reproducing microbes provide a window on

natural selection. New York Times, June 26,2007.

Zinser, E. R, and R. Kolter. 2004. Escherichia eoli evolution during stationary phase. ResMicrobiol 155 (5):328-36.

Zorzano, M. P., D. Hochberg, M. T. Cuevas, and J.M.Gomez?Gomez.

Reaction- diffusion model for pattern formation in E. eoli swarming colonies with slime. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys 71 (3 pt. 1):031908

<<<
>>>

: 0.844. /Cache: 0 / 0