:

<<<
>>>

. : Belinda Thomson, ed., with Tamar Garb and multiple authors, Gauguin: Maker of Myth (Washington, DC: Tate Publishing, National Gallery of Art, 2010).

2.

. : Jessica L. Ware, David A. Grimaldi, and Michael S. Engel, The effects of fossil placement and calibration on divergence times and rates: An example from the termites (Insecta.- Isoptera) Arthropod Structure and Development 39:204-219 (2010). : , : Edward . Wilson and Bert Holldobler, The rise of the ants: Aphylogenetic and ecological explanation Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 102(21): 7411-7414 (2005). : Michael Ohl and Michael S. Engel, Die Fossilgeschichte der Bienen und ihrer nachsten Verwandten (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) Denisia 20:687-700 (2007).

, lyad S. Zalmout et al., New Oligocene primate from Saudi Arabia and the divergence of apes and Old World monkeys Nature 466:360-364 (2010).

3.

Homo sapiens . : Homo sapiens 10 , , Homo sapiens, 10 , 7 4 .

. Tracy L. Kivell and Daniel Schmitt, Independent evolution of knuckle-walking in African apes shows that humans did not evolve from a knuckle-walking ancestor Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A.io6{^): 14241-14246 (2009).

. Louis Liebenberg, Persistence hunting by modern hunter-gatherers Current Anthropology 47(6): 1017-1025 (2006).

. Bernd Heinrich, Racing the Antelope: What Animals Can Teach Us about Running and Life (New York: HarperCollins, 2001).

. Paul . Bingham, Human uniqueness: A general theory Quarterly Review of Biology 74(2): 133-169 (1999).

. Lee Hsiang Liow et al., Higher origination and extinction rates in larger mammals Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 105(16): 6097-6102 (2008).

. Guy L. Bush et al., Rapid speciation and chromosomal evolution in mammals Proceedings of the Notionol Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 74(9): 3942-3946 (1977); Don Jay Melnick, The genetic consequences of primate social organization Genetica 73:117-135 (1987).

4.

Homo hobllls. Winfried Henke, Human biological evolution : Franz M. Wuketits and Francisco Ayala, eds., Handbook of Evolution, vol. 2, The Evolution of Living Systems (Including Humans) (Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. 2005), pp. 117-222.

. Elisabeth S. Vrba et al., eds., Paleoclimate and Evolution, with Emphasis on Human Origins (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995).

. R. Adriana Hemandez-Aguilar, Jim Moore, and Travis Rayne Pickering, Savanna chimpanzees use tools to harvest the underground storage organs of plants Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 104(49): 19210-19213 (2007).

. Daniel Sol et al., Big brains, enhanced cognition, and response of birds to novel environments Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 102(15): 5460-5465 (2005).

. John A. Finarelli and John J. Flynn, Brain-size evolution and sociality in Carnivora Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 106(23): 9345-9349 (2009).

. J. Shreeve, Evolutionary road National Geographic 218: 34-67 (July 2010).

. David R. Braun etal., Early hominin diet included diverse terrestrial and aquatic animals 1.95 Ma in East Turkana, Kenya Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 107(22): 10002-10007 (2010); Teresa E. Steele, unique hominin menu dated to 1.95 million years ago Proceedings of the National Academy ofSciences, U.S.A. 107(24): 10771-10772 (2010).

. Martin Surbeck and Gottfried Hohmann, Primate hunting by bonobos at LuiKotale, Salonga National Park Current Biology 18(19): R906-R907 (2008).

. Michael . Richards and Erik Trinkaus. Isotopic evidence for the diets of European Neanderthals and early modern humans Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 106(38): 16034-16039 (2009). , : Amanda G. Henry, Alison S. Brooks, and Dolores

R. Piperno, Microfossils in calculus demonstrate consumption of plants and cooked foods in Neanderthal diets (Shanidar III, Iraq; Spy I and II, Belgium) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 108(2): 486-491 (2011).

6.

. 1970- . , , : Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1975) On Human Nature (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1978). , , , . .: Edward . Wilson, One giant leap: How insects achieved altruism and colonial life BioScience 5B(i): 17-25 (2008); Martin A. Nowak, Corina E. Tarnita, and Edward 0. Wilson, The evolution of eusociality Nature 466:1057-1062 (2010).

, . Martin A. Nowak, Corina . Tamita, and Edward . Wilson, The evolution of eusociality Nature 466:1057-1062 (2010).

7.

. Roger Brown, Social Psychology (New York: Free Press. 1965; 2nd ed. 1985), p. 553.

. Roger Brown, Social Psychology (New York: Free Press, 1965; 2nd ed. 1985), p. 553; Edward 0. Wilson, Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge (New York: Knopf, 199B).

. Katherine D. Kinzler, Emmanuel Dupoux, and Elizabeth S. Spelke, The native language of social cognition Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 104(30): 12577-12580 (2007).

. Jeffrey Kluger, Race and the brain Time, p. 59 (20 October 2008).

8. -

. William James, The moral equivalent of war Popular Science Monthly 77: 400-410 (1910).

. Timothy Snyder, Holocaust: The ignored reality New York Review of Books 56(12) (16 July 2009).

. Martin Luther, Whether Soldiers, Too, Can Be Saved (1526), trans. J. M. Porter, Luther: Selected Political Writings (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1988), p. 103. : . .

. William James, The moral equivalent of war Popular Science Monthly 77: 400-410 (1910); Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War, trans. Walter Banco (New York: W. W. Norton, 1998). : . . . , 1981.

. Steven A. LeBlanc and Katherine . Register, Constant Battles: The Myth of the Peaceful, Noble Savage (New York: St. Martins Press, 2003).

. Bernard Faure, Buddhism and violence International Review of Culture & Society no. 9 (Spring 2002); Michael Zimmermann, ed., Buddhism and Violence (Bhairahana, Nepal: Lumbini International Research Institute, 2006).

. Steven A. LeBlanc and Katherine E. Register. Constant Battles: The Myth of the Peaceful, Noble Savage (New York: St. Martins Press, 2003).

. Richard Levins, The theory of fitness in a heterogeneous environment, IV: The adaptive significance of gene fiow Evolution 18(4): 635-638 (1965); Richard Levins, Evolution in Changing Environments: Some Theoretical Explorations (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1968); Scott A. Boorman and Paul R. Levitt, Group selection on the boundary of a stable population Theoretical Population Biology 4(1): 85-128 (1973); Scott A. Boorman and P. R. Levitt, frequency-dependent natural selection model for the evolution of social cooperation networks Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 70(1): 187-189 (1973). -. Edward . Wilson, Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1975). PP-110-117.

. Richard W. Wrangham, Michael L. Wilson, and Martin N. Muller, Comparative rates of violence in chimpanzees and humans Primates 47: 14-26 (2006).

. Richard W. Wrangham and Michael L. Wilson, Collective violence: Comparison between youths and chimpanzees Annals of the New York Academy of Science 1036: 233-256 (2004).

. John C. Mitani, David P. Watts, and Sylvia j. Amsler, Lethal intergroup aggression leads to territorial expansion in wild chimpanzees Current Biology 20(12): R507-R508 (2010). : Nicholas Wade. Chimps that wage war and annex rival territory New York Times, D4 (22 June 2010).

. 1828 . . , . , , .

. . A. Hammel, Demographics and kinship in anthropological populations Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 102(6): 2248-2253 (2005).

. R. Hopfen-berg, Human carrying capacity is determined by food availability Population and Environment 25:109-117 (2003). 77-84

9.

Homo erectus. : World Roundup: Archaeological assemblages: Kenya Archaeology, p. 11 (May/June 2009).

Homo sapiens. G. Philip Rightmire. Middle and later Pleistocene hominins in Africa and Southwest Asia, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 106(38): 16046-16050 (2009).

. Stephan C. Schuster et al., Complete Khoisan and Bantu genomes from southern Africa Nature 463: 943-947 (2010).

10.

. Sohini Ramach-andran et al., Support from the relationship of genetic and geographic distance in human populations for a serial founder effect originating in Africa Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 102(44): 15942-15947 (2005).

. Henry Harpending and Alan Rogers, Genetic perspectives on human origins and differentiation Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics 1: 361-385 (2000).

. Andrew S. Cohen et al., Ecological consequences of early Late Pleistocene megadroughts in tropical Africa Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 104(42): 16428-16427 (2007).

Homo sapiens , . )ohn F. Hoffecker, The spread of modern humans in Europe Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 106(38): 16040-16045 (2009):).). Hublin, The origin of Neandertals Proceedings of the Notional Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 106(38): 16022-16027 (2009).

, . David Reich et al., Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia Nature 468:1053-1060 (2010).

Homo sapiens . Peter Foster and S. Matsumura, Did early humans go north or south? Science 308: 965-966 (2005): Cristopher N. Johnson, The remaking of Australias ecology Science 309: 255-256; Gifford H. Miller etal.. Ecosystem collapse in Pleistocene Australia and a human role in megafaunal extinction Science 309: 287-290 (2005).

. Ted Goebel, Michael R. Waters, and Dennis H. ORourke, The Late Pleistocene dispersal of modern humans in the Americas Science 319: 1497-1502 (2008); Andrew Curry, Ancient excrement Archaeology, pp. 42-45 (july/August 2008).

. Francesco dErrico et al., Additional evidence on the use of personal ornaments in the Middle Paleolithic of North Africa Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 106(38): 16051-16056 (2009).

. John Hawks et al., Recent acceleration of human adaptive evolution Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 104(52): 20753-20758 (2007).

. Jun Gojobori et al., Adaptive evolution in humans revealed by the negative correlation between the polymorphism and fixation phases of evolution Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 104(10): 3907-3912 (2007).

. Jun Gojobori et al., Adaptive evolution in humans revealed by the negative correlation between the polymorphism and fixa-

tion phases of evolution Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 104(10): 3907-3912 (2007).

. Ralph Haygood et al., Contrasts between adaptive coding and noncoding changes during human evolution Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 107(17): 7853-7837 (2010).

. . Devlin, Michael Daniels, and Kathryn Roeder, The heritability of IQ Nature 388: 468-471 (1997). , 0.4 0.7; , .

. . Turkheimer, Three laws of behavior genetics and what they mean Current Directions in Psychological Science 9(5): 160-164 (2000).

, lames Fowler, ChristopherT. Dawes, and Nicholas A. Christakis, Model of genetic variation in human social networks Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 106(6): 1720-1724 (2009).

, . Dwight Read and Sander van der Leeuw, Biology is only part of the story Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 363:1959-1968 (2008).

. Colin . Hughes et al., Serendipitous backyard hybridization and the origin of crops Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 104(36): 14389-14394 (2007).

. Steve Olson, Seeking the signs of selection Science 298: 1324-1325 (2002); Michael Balter, Are humans still evolving? Science 309: 234-237 (2005); Cynthia M. Beall et al Natural selection on EPASi (HiF2a) associated with low hemoglobin concentration in Tibetan highlanders Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 107(25): 11459-11464 (2010): Oksana Hlodan, Evolution in extreme environments BioScience 60(6): 414-418 (2010).

li.

: . Kent V. Flannery, The cultural evolution of civilizations Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 3: 399-426 (1972): H. T. Wright, Recent research on the origin of the state Annual Review of Anthropology 6: 379-397 (1977): Charles S. Spencer, Territorial expression and primary state formation Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 107: 7119-7126 (2010).

. Herbert A. Simon, The architecture of complexity Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 106:467-482 (1962).

-. Richard W. Robins, The nature of personality: genes, culture, and national character Science 310: 62-63 (2005).

. A. Terraciano et al., National character does not reflect mean personality trait levels in 49 cultures Science 310: 96-100 (2005).

-. Charles S. Spencer, Territorial expansion and primary state formation Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 107(16): 7119-7126 (2010).

. Charles S. Spencer, Territorial expansion and primary state formation Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 107(16): 7119-7126 (2010).

.

Patrick V. Kirch and Warren D. Sharp, Coral 230Tb datingof the imposition ofa ritual control hierarchy in precontact Hawaii Science 307:102-104 (2005).

. Pierre-)ean Texier et al., Howiesons Poort tradition of engraving ostrich eggshell containers dated to 60,000 years ago at Diepkloof Rock Shelter, South Africa Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 107(14): 6180-6185 (2010).

. Constance Holden, Oldest beads suggest early symbolic behavior Science 304: 369 (2004); Christopher Henshilwood et al., Middle Stone Age shell beads from South Africa Science 304: 404 (2004).

ø-. Andrew Curry, Seeking the roots of ritual Science 319: 278-280 (2008).

. Andrew Lawler, Writing gets a rewrite Science 292: 2418-2420 (2001); John Noble Wilford, Stone said to contain earliest writing in Western Hemisphere New York Times, A12 (15 September 2006).

. Barry . Powell, Writing: Theory and History of the Technology of Civilization (Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009).

. Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies (New York: W. W. Norton, 1997); : . , . . ACT. , 2012 .; Douglas A. Hfbbs Jr. and Ola Olsson, Geography, biogeography, and why some countries are rich and others are poor Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.SA. 101(10): 3715-3720 (2004).

12.

. . J. Fittkau and . Klinge, On biomass and trophic structure of the central Amazonian rainforest ecosystem Biotropica 5: 2-14 (1973).

13.

- . U. Maschwitz, . D. Dill, and J. Williams, Herdsmen ants and their mealybug partners Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft Frankfurt am Main 557:1-373 (2002).

14. . Edward . Wilson and Bert Holldobler, Eusociality: Origin and consequences Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 102(38): 13367-13371 (2005); Charles D. Michener, The Bees of the World (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007); Bryan N. Danforth, Evolution of sociality in a primitively eusocial lineage of bees Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.SA. 99(1): 286-290 (2002): Bert Holldobler and Edward 0. Wilson, The Superorganism: The Beauty, Elegance, and Strangeness of Insect Societies (New York: W. W. Norton, 2009).

-.). Emmett Duffy, . L. Morrison, and R.Rios, Multiple origins of eusociality among sponge-dwelling shrimps (Synalpheus) Evolution 54(2): 503-516 (2000).

. Geerat j. Vermeij, Historical contingency and the purported uniqueness of evolutionary innovations Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 103(6): 1804-1809 (2006).

. . J. Hatchwell and ]. Komdeur, Ecological constraints, life history traits and the evolution of cooperative breeding Animal Behaviour 59(6): 1079-1086 (2000).

15.

. William Morton Wheeler, Colony Founding among Ants, with an Account of Some Primitive Australian Species (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1933); Charles D. Michener, The evolution of social behavior in bees Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress in Entomology, Montreal 2: 441-447 (1956); Howard E. Evans, The evolution of social life in wasps Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress in Entomology, Montreal, 2: 449-457 (1956).

. Martin A. Nowak, Corina E. Tarnita, and Edward 0. Wilson, The evolution of eusociality Nature 466:1057-1062 (2010). : Martin A. Nowak and Roger Highfield in SuperCooperators: Altruisim, Evolution, and Why We Need Each Other to Succeed (New York: Free Press, 2011).

. Edward . Wilson, One giant leap: How insects achieved altruism and colonial life BioScience 58:17-25 (2008).

. Edward . Wilson and Bert Holldobler, Eusociality: Origin and consequences Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 102(38): 13367-13371 (2005).

Hymenoptera. James T. Costa, The Other Insect Societies (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2006).

. D. S. Kent and ). A. Simpson, Eusociality in the beetle Austroplatypus incompertus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Naturwissenschaften 79: B6-87 (1992).

. Bernard ]. Crespi, Eusociality in Australian gall thrips Nature 359:724-726 (1992); David L. Stern and W. A. Foster, The evolution of soldiers in aphids Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 71: 27-79 (1996).

-. J. Emmett Duffy, Ecology and evolution of eusociality in sponge-dwelling shrimp in J. Emmett Duffy and Martin Thiel, eds., Evolutionary Ecology of Social and Sexual Systems: Crustaceans as Model Organisms (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007).

, . Shoichi F. Sakagami and Yasuo Maeta, Sociality, induced and/or natural, in the basically solitary small carpenter bees (Ceraf/nc) Yosiaki Ito, jerram L. Brown, and Jiro Kikkawa, eds., Animal Societies: Theories and Facts (Tokyo: Japan Scientific Societies Press, 1987), pp. 1-16; William T. Wcislo, Social Interactions

and behavioral context in a largely solitary bee, Lasioglossum (Dialictus) figueresi (Hymenoptera, Halictidae) Insectes Sociaux 44:199-208 (1997); Raphael Jeanson, Penny F. Kukuk, and Jennifer H. Fewell, Emergence of division of labour in halictine bees: Contributions of social interactions and behavioural variance Animal Behaviour 70:1183-1193 (2005).

. Gene . Robinson and Robert . Page Jr., Genetic basis for division of labor in an insect society in Michael D. Breed and Robert E. Page Jr., eds., The Genetics of Social Evolution (Boulder, CO: Westview Press 1989), pp. 61-80; E. Bonabeau, G. Theraulaz, and Jean-Luc Deneubourg, Quantitative study of the fixed threshold model for the regulation of division of labour in insect societies Proceedings of the Royal Society 263: 1565-1369 (1996); Samuel N. Beshers and Jennifer H. Fewell, Models of division of labor in social insects Annual Review of Entomology 46:413-440 (2001).

16.

. J. Field and S. Brace, Pre-social benefits of extended parental care Nature 427: 650-652 (2004).

. Bryan N. Danforth, Evolution of sociality in a primitively eusocial lineage of bees Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 99(1): 286-290 (2002).

. James . Hunt and Gro V. Amdam, Bivoltinism as an antecedent to eusociality in the paper wasp genus Polistes Science 308: 264-267 (2005).

. Ehab Abouheif and G. A. Wray, Evolution of the gene network underlying wing polyphenism in ants Science 297: 249-252 (2002).

. Kenneth G. Ross and Laurent Keller, Genetic control of social organization in an ant Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 95(24): 14232-14237 (1998).

. . J. . Krieger and Kenneth G. Ross, Identification ofa major gene regulating complex social behavior Science 295: 328 332 (2002).

. James . Hunt and Gro V. Amdam, Bivoltinism as an antecedent to eusociality in the paper wasp genus Polistes Science 308: 264-267 (2005).

. Shoichi F. Sakagami and Yasuo Maeta, Sociality, induced and/or natural, in the basically solitary small carpenter bees (1Ceratina) in Yosiaki Ito, Jerram L. Brown, and Jiro Kikkawa, eds.. Animal Societies: Theories and Facts (Tokyo: Japan Scientific Societies Press, 1987), pp. 1-16.

. Miriam . Richards, Eric J. von Wettberg, and Amy C. Rutgers, novel social polymorphism in a primitively eusocial bee Proceedings of the Notional Acodemy of Sciences, U.S.A. 100(12): 7175-7180 (2003).

.

Gro V. Amdam et al., Complex social behaviour from maternal reproductive traits Nature 439: 76-78 (2006); Gro V. Amdam et al., Variation in endocrine signaling underlies variation in social lifehistory American Naturalist 170: 37-46 (2007).

. Edward . Wilson, The Insect Societies (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1971); Edward 0. Wilson and Bert Holldobler, Eusociality: Origin and consequence Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 102(38): 13367 13371 (2005).

17.

. : (1873), " (1838), (1859) (1872).

18.

. William D. Hamilton, The genetical evolution of social behaviour, I, II journal of Theoretical Biology 7:1-52 (1964).

. J. . S. Haldane. Population genetics New Biology (Penguin Books) 18: 34-51 (1955).

. Edward 0. Wilson, One giant leap: How insects achieved altruism and colonial life BioScience 58(1): 17-25 (2008).

. Blaine Cole and Diane C. Wiernacz, The selective advantage of low relatedness Science 285: 891-893 (1999); William . H. Hughes and J. I. Boomsma, Genetic diversity and disease resistance in leaf-cutting ant societies Evolution 58:1251-1260 (2004).

. F. . Rheindt, . . Strehl, and Jurgen Gadau, genetic component in the determination of worker polymorphism in the Fiorida harvester ant Pogonomyrmex badiusInsectes Sociaux 52:163-168 (2005).

- .). . Jones, . R. Myerscough, S. Graham, and Ben P. Oldroyd, Honey bee nest thermoregulation: Diversity supports stability Science 305:402-404 (2004).

. . Schwander, . Rosset, and . Chapuisat, Division of labour and worker size polymorphism in ant colonies: The impact of social and genetic factors Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 59: 215-221 (2005).

, . Edward . Wilson, Kin selection as the key to altruism: Its rise and fall Social Research 72(1): 159-166 (2005): Edward 0. Wilson and Bert Holldobler, Eusociality: Origin and consequences Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 102(38): 13367-13371 (2005); David Sloan Wilson and Edward 0. Wilson, Rethinking the theoretical foundation of sociobiology Quarterly Review of Biology 82(4): 327-348 (2007); Edward 0. Wilson, One giant leap: How insects achieved altruism and colonial life BioScience 58(1): 17-25 (2008); David Sloan Wilson and Edward 0. Wilson, Evolution for the good of the group,' American Scientist 96: 380-389 (2008); , , : Martin A. Nowak, Corina E. Tarnita and Edward 0. Wilson, The evolution of eusociality Nature 466: 1057-1062 (2010). .

. Robert L. Trivers and Hope Hare, Haplodiploidy and the evolution of the social insects Science 191: 249- 263 (1976); Andrew F. G. Bourke and Nigel R. Franks, Social Evolution in Ants (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995).

. Francis L. W. Ratnieks, Kevin R. Foster, and Tom Wenseleers, Conflict resolution in insect societies Annual Review of Entomology 51: 581-608 (2006).

. William . . Hughes et al., Ancestral monogamy shows kin selection is key to the evolution of eusocial-ity Science 320:1213-1216 (2008).

. Edward . Wilson, One giant leap: How insects achieved altruism and colonial life BioScience 58:17-25 (2008); Bert Holldobler and Edward 0. Wilson, The Superorganism: The Beauty, Elegance, and Strangeness of Insect Societies (New York: W. W. Norton, 2009).

. , , , , : Martin A. Nowak, Corina . Tarnita, and Edward 0. Wilson, The evolution of eusociality Nature 466:1057-1062 (2010).

. Raghavendra Gadagkar, The Social Biology of Ropalidia marginata: Toward Understanding the Evolution of Eusociality (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001); Barbara L. Thorne, Nancy L. Breisch, and Mario L. Muscedere, Evolution of eusociality and the soldier caste in termites: Influence of accelerated inheritance Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 100:12808-12813 (2003); Abderrahman Khila and Ehab Abouheif, Evaluating the role of reproductive constraints in ant social evolution Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 365: 617-630 (2010).

. Arne Traulsen, Mathematics of kin- and group-selection: Formally equivalent? Evolution 64: 316-323 (2010).

. Martin A. Nowak, Corina E. Tarnita, and Edward 0. Wilson, The evolution of eusociality Nature 466:1057-1062 (2010). See also Martin A. Nowak and Roger Highfield, SuperCooperators: Altruism, Evolution, and Why We Need Each Other to Succeed (New York: Free Press, 2011).

. Martin A. Nowak, Corina . Tarnita, and Edward 0. Wilson, The evolution of eusociality Nature 466:1057-1062 (2010).

. Martin A. Nowak, Corina E. Tarnita, and Edward 0. Wilson, The evolution of eusociality Nature 466:1057-1062 (2010).

. - . : David Sloan Wilson and Edward 0. Wilson, Rethinking the theoretical foundations of sociobiology Quarterly Review of Biology 82(4): 327-348

(2007) .

. W. . . Hughes et al., Ancestral monogamy shows kin selection is key to the evolution of eusociality Science 320:1213-1216

(2008) .

. Bert Holldobler and Edward . Wilson, The Superorganism: The Beauty, Elegance, and Strangeness of Insect Societies (New York: W. W. Norton, 2009).

. Francis L. W. Ratnieks, Kevin R. Foster, and Tom Wenseleers, Conflict resolution in insect societies Annual Review of Entomology 51: 581-608 (2006).

. Robert L. Trivers and Flope Flare, Flaplodiploidy and the evolution of the social insects Science 191: 249-263 (1976).

. Andrew F. G. Bourke and Nigel R. Franks, Social Evolution in Ants (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995).

, j. M. Schneider and T. Bilde, Benefits of cooperation with genetic kin in a subsocial spider Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 105(31): 10843-10846 (2008).

. Stuart A. West, A. S. Griffin, and A. Gardner, Evolutionary explanations for cooperation Current Biology 17: R661-R672 (2007).

, . . J. Hatchwell and J. Komdeur, Ecological constraints, life history traits and the evolution of cooperative breeding Animal Behaviour 59(6): 1079-1086 (2000).

19.

. J. W. Pepper and Barbara Smuts, mechanism for the evolution of altruism among nonkin: Positive assortment through environmental feedback American Naturalist 160: 205-213 (2002); J. A. Fletcher and M. Zwick, Strong altruism can evolve in randomly formed groups Journal of Theoretical Biology 228: 303-313 (2004).

. Barbara L. Thorne, Nancy L. Breisch, and Mario L. Muscedere, Evolution of eusociality and the soldier caste in termites: Influence of accelerated inheritance Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A 100:12808-12813 (2003).

. Martin A. Nowak, Corina E. Tarnita, and Edward 0. Wilson, The evolution of eusociality Nature 466:1057-1062 (2010).

. Bert Holldobler and Edward 0. Wilson, The Superorganism: The Beauty, Elegance, and Strangeness of Insect Societies (New York: W. W. Norton, 2009).

20. ?

- . Charles J. Lumsden and Edward 0. Wilson, Translation of epigenetic rules of individual behavior into ethnographic patterns Proceedings afthe National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 77(7): 4382-4386 (1980); Geneculture translation in the avoidance of sibling incest Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 77(10): 6248-6250 (1980); Genes, Mind, and Culture: The Revolutionary Process (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981); Edward 0. Wilson, Biophilia (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1984).

- . Charles J. Lumsden and Edward 0. Wilson, Promethean Fire: Reflection on the Origin of the Mind (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983).

. Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza and Marcus W. Feldman, Cultural Transmission and Evolution: A Quantitative Approach (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1981); Robert Boyd and Peter). Richerson, Culture and the Evolutionary Process (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985). 1976 - : Cultural and biological evolutionary processes, selection for a trait under complex transmission Theoretical Population Biology 9: 238-259 (1976) The evolution of continuous variation, II: Complex transmission and assortative mating Theoretical Population Biologyn: 161-181 (1977). , ; . . , , . - , , : Charles). Lumsden and Edward . Wilson, Genes, Mind, and Culture: The Revolutionary Process (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), pp. 258-263.

. Sarah A. Tishkoff et al., Convergent adaptation of human lactase persistence in Africa and Europe Nature Genetics 39(1): 31-40 (2007).

- . Olli Arjama and Tima Vuoriselo, Gene-culture coevolution and human diet American Scientist 98:140-146 (2010).

. Richard Wrangham, Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human (New York: Basic Books, 2009).

- . : Edward . Wilson, Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge (New York: Knopf, 1998) .

. Arthur . Wolf, Sexual Attraction and Childhood Association: A Chinese Brief for Edward Westermarck (Stanford, CA; Stanford University Press, 1995); Joseph Shepher, Mate selection among second generation kibbutz adolescents and adults: Incest avoidance and negative imprinting Archives of Sexual Behavior 1(4): 293-307 (1971); William H. Durham, Coevolution: Genes, Culture, and Human Diversity (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1991).

, . Jennifer Couzain and Joselyn Kaiser, Closing the net on common disease genes Science 316: 820-822 (2007); Ken N. Paige, The functional genomics of inbreeding depression: A new approach to an old problem BioScience 60: 267-277 (2010).

. , , : Bernard Chapais, Primeval Kinship: How Pair-Bonding Gave Rise to Human Society (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008).

. William . Durham, Coevolution: Genes, Culture, and Human Diversity (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1991).

. Charles J. Lumsden and Edward . Wilson, Genes, Mind, and Culture: The CoevolutionaryProcess (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981); Tabitha M. Powledge, Epigenetics and development BioScience 59: 736-741 (2009).

. : Edward . Wilson, Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge (New York: Knopf, 1998) , , .

. Brent Berlin and Paul Kay, Basic ColorTerms: Their Universality and Evolution (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1969).

( ). Eleanor Rosch, Carolyn Mervis, and Wayne Gray, Basic Objects in Natural Categories (Berkeley: University of California, Language Behavior Research Laboratory, Working Paper no. 43,1975).

. Trevor Lamb and Janine Bourriau, eds.. Colour: Art & Science (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995): Philip E. Ross, Draining the language out of color Scientific American pp. 46-47 (April 2004); Terry Regier, Paul Kay, and Naveen Khetarpal, Color naming reflects optimal partitions of color space Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 104(4): 1436-1441 (2007); A. Franklin et al., Lateralization of categorical perception of color changes with color term acquisition Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 105(47): 18221-18225 (2008).

. Paul Kay and Terry Regier, Language, thought and color: Recent developments Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10: 53-54 (2006).

. Wai Ting Siok et al Language regions of brain are operative in color perception Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 106(20): 8140-8145 (2009).

. Andre A. Fernandez and Molly R. Morris, Sexual selection and trichromatic color vision in primates: Statistical support for the preexisting-bias hypothesis American Naturalist 170(1): 10-20 (2007).

21.

. Toshisada Nishida, Local traditions and cultural transmission Barbara . Smuts et al., eds., Primate Societies (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), pp. 462-474; Robert Boyd and Peter J. Richerson, Why culture is common, but cultural evolution is rare Proceedings of the British Academy 88: 77-93 (1996).

. Kevin N. Laland and William Hoppitt, Do animals have culture? Evolutionary Anthropology 12(3): 150-159 (2003).

. Andrew Whiten, Victoria Horner, and Frans . M. de Waal, Conformity to cultural norms of tool use in chim-

panzees Nature 437: 737-740 (2005). , , . , Tool study supports chimp culture Science 309:1311 (2005).

. Michael Krbtzen et al Cultural transmission of tool use in bottlenose dolphins Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A 102(25): 8939-8943 (2005).

. Joel Fagot and Robert G. Cook, Evidence for large long-term memory capacities in baboons and pigeons and its implications for learning and the evolution of cognition Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 103(46): 17564-17567 (2006).

. Michael Baltar, Did working memory spark creative culture? Science 328:160-163 (2010).

. Gary Marcus, The Birth of the Mind: Howa Tiny Number of Genes Creates the Complexity of Human Thought (New York: Basic Books, 2004); H. Clark Barrett, Dispelling rumors of a gene shortage Science 304:1601-1602 (2004).

. Thomas Wynn, Hafted spears and the archaeology of mind Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 106(24): 9544-9545 (2009): Lyn Wadley, Tamaryn Hodg-skiss, and Michael Grant, Implications for complex cognition from the hafting of tools with compound adhesives in the Middle Stone Age, South Africa Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 106(24): 9590-9594 (2009).

? . Marcia S. Ponce de Leyn et al., Neanderthal brain size at birth provides insights into the evolution of human life history Proceedingsofthe NationalAcademy of Sciences, U.S.A. 105(37): 13764-13768 (2008).

. Thomas Wynn and Frederick L. Coolidge, stone-age meeting of minds American Scientist 96: 44-51 (2008).

. Michael Tomasello et al., Understanding and sharing intentions: The origins of cultural cognition Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28(5):

, 675-691; commentary 691-735 (2005); Michael Tomasello, The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999).

. Esther Herrmann et al., Humans have evolved specialized skills of social cognition: The cultural intelligence hypothesis Science 317:1360-1366 (2007).

. Eors Szathmary and Szabolcs SzamadO, Language: a social history of words Nature 456: 40-41 (2008).

22.

, . Michael Tomasello et al., Understanding and sharing intentions: The origins of cultural cognition Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28(5): 675-691; commentary 691-735 (2005). See also Michael Tomasello, The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999).

. D. Kimbrough Oiler and Ulrike Griebel, eds., Evolution of Communication Systems: A Comparative Approach (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004).

. Steven Pinker, Martin A. Nowak, and James J. Lee, The logic of indirect speech Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 105(3): 833-838 (2008).

.

Tanya Stivers et al., Universals and cultural variation in turn-taking in conversation Proceedings ofthe National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 106(26): 10587-10592 (2009).

: . Disa A. Sauter et al., Cross-cultural recognition of basic emotions through nonverbal emotional vocalizations Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 107(6): 2408-2412 (2010).

. Noam Chomsky, Verbal Behavior' by B. F. Skinner (The Century Psychology Series), pp. viii, 478, New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1957 Language 35: 26-58 (1959).

. : Steven Pinker, The Language Instinct: The New Science and Mind [Hew York: Penguin Books USA, 1994), p. 104. : . . .: , 2004.

. Daniel Nettle, Language and genes: A new perspective on the origins of human cultural diversity Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 104(26): 10755-10756 (2007).

. John G. Fought et al., Sonority and climate in a world sample of languages: Findings and prospects Cross-Cultural Research 38: 27-51 (2004).

. Dan Dediu and D. Robert Ladd, Linguistic tone is related to the population frequency ofthe adaptive haplogroups of two brain size genes, ASPM and Microcephalia Proceedings ofthe National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 104(26): 10944-10949 (2007).

. Derek Bickerton, Roots of Language (Ann Arbor, Ml: Karoma, 1981); Michael DeGraff, ed.. Language Creation and Language Change: Creolization, Diachrony, and Development (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999).

-. Wendy Sandler et al., The emergence of grammar: Systemic structure in a new language Proceedings ofthe National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 102(7): 2661-2665 (2005).

. Susan Goldin-Meadow et al., The natural order of events: Flow speakers of different languages represent events nonverbally Proceedings ofthe National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 105(27): 9163-9168 (2008).

. Nick Chater, Florencia Reali, and Morten FI. Christiansen, Restrictions on biological adaptation in language evolution Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 106(4): 1015-1020 (2009).

23.

. Vincent A. A. Jansen and Michael . . Stumpf, Making sense of evolution in an uncertain world Science 309: 2005-2007 (2005).

, , . Rudolf A. Raff and Thomas . Kaufman, Embryos, Genes, and Evolution: The Developmental-Genetic Basis of Evolutionary Change (New York: Macmillan, 1983; reprint, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991): David A. Garfield and Gregory A. Wray, The evolution of gene regulatory interactions BioScience 60:15-23 (2010).

. Edward . Wilson, The Insect Societies (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971); Bert Holldobler and Edward 0. Wilson, The Superorganism: The Beauty, Elegance, and Strangeness of Insect Societies (New York: W. W. Norton, 2009).

24.

. Donald W. Pfaff, The Neuroscience of Fair Play: Why We (Usually) Follow the Golden Rule (New York: Dana Press, 2007).

. Ernst Fehrand Simon Gachter, Altruistic punishment in humans Nature 415:137-140 (2002).

. Robert Boyd, The puzzle of human sociality Science 314: 1555-1556 (2006); Martin Nowak, Corina Tarnita, and Edward 0. Wilson, The evolution of eusociality Nature 466: 1059-1062 (2010).

. Martin A. Nowak and Karl Sigmund, Evolution of Indirect reciprocity Nature 437:1291-1298 (2005); Gretchen Vogel, The evolution of the Golden Rule Science 303:1128-1131 (2004).

. Matthew Gervais and David Sloan Wilson, The evolution and functions of laughter and humor: A synthetic approach Quarterly Review of Biology 80: 395-430 (2005).

. Robert Boyd, The puzzle of human sociality Science 314:1555-1556 (2006).

. Samuel Bowles, Group competition, reproduc-/ tive leveling, and the evolution of human altruism Science 314:1569-1572 (2006).

. Michael Sargent, Why inequality is fatal Nature 458: 1109-1110 (2009): Richard G. Wilkinson and Kate Pickett, The Spirit Level: Why More Equal Societies Almost Always Do Better (New York: Allen Lane, 2009).

. Robert Boyd et al., The evolution of altruistic punishment Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 100(6): 3533-3535 (2003); Dominique J.-F. de Quervain et al., The neural basis of altruistic punishment Science 305:1254-1258 (2004); Christoph Hauert et al., Via freedom to coercion: The emergence of costly punishment Science 316:1905-1907 (2007); Benedikt Herrmann, Christian Thoni, and Simon Gachter, Antisocial punishment across societies Science 319:1362-1367 (2008); Louis Putterman, Cooperation and punishment Science 328: 578-579 (2010).

25.

. Gregory W. Graffin and William . Provine, Evolution, religion, and free will American Scientist 95(4): 294-297 (2007).

. Phil Zuckerman, Secularization: EuropeYes, United StatesN0 Skeptical inquirer 28(2): 49-52 (March/April 2004).

. Thomas Dixon, The shifting ground between the carbon and the Christian Times Literary Supplement, pp. 3-4 (22 and 29 December 2006).

. Paul R. Ehrlich, Intervening in evolution: Ethics and actions Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 98(10): 5477-5480 (2001); Robert Pollack, DNA, evolution, and the moral law Science 313:1890-1891 (2006).

. Pascal Boyer, Religion: Bound to believe? Nature 455:1038-1039 (2008).

. J. Allan Cheyne and Bruce Bower, Night of the crusher Time, pp. 27-29 (19 July 2005). , , : Neurotheology: Brain, Science, Spirituality, Religious Experience, ed. Rhawn Joseph (San Jose, CA: University of California Press, 2002).

, . Frank Echenhofer, Ayahuasca sha-manic visions: Integrating neuroscience, psychotherapy, and spiritual perspectives in Barbara Maria Stafford, ed., A Field Guide to a New Meta-Field: Bridging the Humanities-Neurosciences Divide (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011). , , .

. Richard . Schultes, Albert Hoffmann, and Christian Ratsch, Plants of the Gods: Their Sacred, Flealing, and Flallucinogenic Powers, rev. ed. (Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press, 1998).

. Robert Wright, The Evolution of God (New York: Little, Brown, 2009).

26.

. Gerda Smets, Aesthetic Judgment and Arousal: An Experimental Contribution to Psycho-Aesthetics (Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press, 1973).

. Gordon . Orians, Habitat selection: General theory and applications to human behavior : Joan S. Lockard, ed., The Evolution of Fluman Social Behavior (New York: Elsevier, 1980), pp. 49-66; Edward 0. Wilson, Biophilia (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1984); Stephen R. Kellert and Edward 0. Wilson, eds.. The Biophilia Fiypothesis (Washington, DC: Island Press, 1993); Stephen R. Kellert, Judith H. Heerwagen, and Martin L. Mador, eds., Biophilic Design: The Theory, Science, and Practice of Bringing Buildings ta Life

(Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2008); Timothy Beatley, Biophilic Cities: Integrating Nature into Urban Design and Planning (Washington, DC: Island Press, 2011).

. E. L. Doctorow, Notes on the history of fiction Atlantic Monthly Fiction Issue, pp. 88-92 (August 2006).

. Michael Balter, On the origin of art and symbolism Science 323: 709-711 (2009); Elizabeth Culotta, On the origin of religion Science 326:784-787 (2009).

. R. Dale Guthrie, The Nature of Paleolithic Art (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005); William H. McNeill, Secrets of tfie cave paintings New York Review of Books, pp. 20-23 (19 October 2006); Michael Balter, Going deeper into the Grotte Chauvet Science 321:904-905 (2008).

. Lois Wingerson, Rock music: Remixing the sounds of the Stone Age Archaeology, pp. 46-50 (September/October 2008).

. Cecil Maurice Bowra, Primitive Song (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1962); Richard B. Lee and Richard Heywood Daly, eds., The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Hunters and Gatherers (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999).

. Aniruddh D. Patel, Music as a transformative technology of the mind : Aniruddh D. Patel, Music, Language, and the Brain (Oxford: University of Oxford Press, 2008).

27.

. Martin A. Nowak, Corina . Tarnita, and Edward . Wilson, The evolution of eusociality Nature 466:1059-1062 (2010); : Nature, March 2011, online.

, . Nancy R. Buchan et al., Globalization and human cooperation Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 106(11): 4138-4142 (2009).

<<<
>>>

: 1.505. /Cache: 0 / 0